Biblical topics
Bible Study
Pope Shenouda
Father Matta
Bishop Mattaous
Bishop Moussa
Bishop Alexander
Habib Gerguis
Fasts & Feasts
Family & Youth







Commentary on The First Letter of Saint John

1:1-4 The prologue gives witness to the mystery of the Incarnation. John speaks for all the apostles ("we") when he testifies that Jesus is the life and Son of God who manifested himself in a visible, audible, and tangible way when he came in the flesh as a man (4:2). • John describes the Incarnation in terms also applicable to the sacraments of the Church. Through these liturgical signs and actions, Christ continues to give his life to the world in ways perceptible by our senses (CCC 1145-52). This is particularly true of the Eucharist, which gives us the human "flesh" (1 Jn 4:2) and "blood" (5:6) of Jesus in its risen and glorified state. Back to text.

1:1 the beginning: I.e., when the Christian message first reached the original readers (2:7, 24; 3:11). There is also an allusion to "the beginning" mentioned in Jn 1:1, where the reference points back to the dawn of creation, when God brought all things into being through his divine Son (1 Jn 2:1314; 3:8). the word of life: The good news of the gospel. Its focus is the personal "Word" of the Father, Jesus Christ (Jn 1:1; Rev 19:13). See word study: Word at Jn 1:1. Back to text.

1:2 with the Father: Christ embodies the eternal life (5:11) that he shares with the Father in his divinity (Jn 5:26). This means that Christ himself is "true God" (1 Jn 5:20; Jn 1:1) and that he reveals to us the mystery of God's inner life as a Trinity (Jn 1:18). Back to text.

1:3 fellowship: The interpersonal communion that believers have with God and with one another (1:6-7). It is based on a common participation in divine life that establishes us as God's children (3:1). The apostles extend this gift to others by their preaching and sacramental ministry (1 Cor 10:16-17; CCC 425). Back to text.

1:5 God is light: Means that God is infinite goodness, purity, and truth. darkness: Stands for all things evil and erroneous that are churned out by the devil (Jn 3:19-21). Fellowship with God is impossible unless believers live in the light—loving as God loves and staying pure from sin as God is pure (1 Jn 1:6-7). This black-and-white vision of the world is also shared by the Jewish authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls, who made similar contrasts between spiritual realities in terms of light and darkness. Back to text.

1:8 we have no sin: An outrageous claim. John cautions readers that stubborn refusal to admit sin is a delusion and at the same time an insult to God (1:10) (CCC 827). Back to text.

1:9 If we confess: John envisions, not a general admission of weakness or even sinfulness, but the confession of specific acts of wrongdoing (Ps 32:3-5). God, for his part, is eager to show mercy to the contrite spirit (Ps 51:17). Contrary to the teaching of some, the need for repentance, confession, and forgiveness is ongoing throughout the Christian life; otherwise, the Lord would not urge believers to seek forgiveness on a continuing basis (Mt 6:12; Lk 11:4). Note that in biblical terms "confession" (Gk. homologeō) is something you do with your lips and not simply in the silence of your heart (Mk 1:5; Rom 10:10; Jas 5:16) (CCC 2631). • The Church encourages the private confession of sins to God. Ordinarily, however, this should lead us to the Sacrament of Reconciliation. Jesus implies as much in Jn 20:23, where he gives the apostles his own authority to remit or retain sins according to their discretion. This discretion could not be exercised apart from knowledge of specific sins acquired by the verbal confession of sinners (CCC 1461, 2839). • Priestly confession is not a Christian innovation but an extension and sacramental elevation of a practice long observed in Israel (Lev 5:5-6; Num 5:510). Back to text.

2:1-6 John recognizes that sin can be a nagging problem in the lives of believers. It is not a problem without a solution, however, since Jesus Christ is our advocate (2:1), our sin-offering (2:2), and our moral example (2:6). Back to text.

2:1 advocate: Refers to an "attorney" or "defense lawyer" in contemporary Greek literature. Jesus spoke of himself (Jn 14:16) and of the Spirit in this way (Jn 14:26; 15:26). Advocacy is needed before the Father when our sins prompt the devil to bring accusations against us (Rev 12:10) (CCC 519). See word study: Counselor at Jn 14:16. Back to text.

2:2 sins of the whole world: The redeeming work of Christ embraces all times, all places, and all peoples (Jn 1:29). Not a single individual has lived or will live for whom Christ did not die (2 Cor 5:15; CCC 605). See note on 1 Tim 2:4. • One makes satisfaction for an offense when he offers the person offended something of equal or greater value. Christ, by suffering in a spirit of love and obedience, offered to God more than the recompense required for all the offenses of the human race. His Passion was not only sufficient but superabundant satisfaction for the world's sins (St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, III, 48, 2). Back to text.

2:3 keep his commandments: The Father gives guidance to his children (3:1) for living and growing in maturity. Obedience to his commandments gives us the moral certitude that we are living as true sons and daughters. In essence, this amounts to imitating Christ (2:6), who showed us how to follow the Father's commandments without exception or fault (Jn 15:10). Back to text.

2:6 the same way . . .he walked: Assumes readers are familiar with the life and ministry of Jesus, probably from the Gospel of John (CCC 2470). Back to text.

2:7 no new commandment: John's teaching is not a recent innovation unfamiliar to his readers. It is, rather, the commandment to love one another (2:10) that they received with the gospel and that ultimately goes back to Jesus (Jn 13:34). The point is that John's catechesis is an authentic expression of apostolic doctrine (CCC 2822). See note on Jn 13:34Back to text.

2:8 the true light: Refers to the gospel in general and to Jesus Christ in particular (Jn 1:9). Back to text.

2:9 He who says . . . and hates: A believer's conduct must agree with his confession for his fellowship with God to be genuine. Faith without faithfulness is not a saving faith at all (Jas 2:14-17). See note on Jn 3:36Back to text.

2:12-14 Readers are assured that Christ's blessings have come upon them: their sins are forgiven (2:12), they know the living God (2:13-14), and they are victorious over the Evil One (2:13-14). It is possible that John's address to children, fathers, and young men refers, not to various age groups, but to three levels of spiritual maturity (1 Cor 3:1; Heb 5:12-14). Back to text.

2:15-17 John urges readers to let go of the world and embrace the Father (4:4). Although God made (Gen 1:1) and loves the world (Jn 3:16), the human family turned against him and surrendered itself to the devil (1 Jn 5:19). Since then, the propensity of fallen man is to love the world in selfish and disordered ways—feeding his flesh with its pleasures, his eyes with its possessions, and his spirit with its pride. Christians are called to renounce the world, not as something evil or detestable, but as something that threatens to consume our attention and turn our affections away from God. The ascetical disciplines of prayer, fasting, and almsgiving are venerated in Jewish and Christian tradition as practical ways to express our love for God and lessen our love for the world (Tob 12:8-10; Mt 6:2-18) (CCC 377, 2514). For different meanings of the term "world" in the writings of John, see note on Jn 1:10Back to text.

2:18 the last hour: The final phase of salvation history set in motion by Christ. Paul refers to this last epoch as "the end of the ages" (1 Cor 10:11), just as Peter calls it "the end of the times" (1 Pet 1:20). These and similar expressions underscore the need for Christians to remain vigilant as they wait in joyful hope for the Lord's return in glory (CCC 670). antichrist: Or, "anti-messiah". Here the title applies to anyone who denies that Jesus is the anointed "Christ" or "Messiah" of Jewish expectation (1 Jn 2:22; 4:3; 2 Jn 7). In a restricted sense, the "Antichrist" is a blasphemous figure expected to appear at the end of days. His coming will thrust the Church into a time of persecution and set off an explosion of evil and deception in the world at large (CCC 675-77). For a description of this eschatological villain, see 2 Thess 2:3-11. Back to text.

Word Study

Expiation (1 Jn 2:2)

Hilasmos (Gk.): a term that can mean "propitiation" with reference to God or "expiation" with reference to sin. The word is used only twice in the NT (1 Jn 2:2; 4:10) but is related to other biblical terms with a similar meaning (Lk 18:13; Rom 3:25; Heb 2:17). In all of these instances, the notion of removing or wiping away sin is in view. The basis for this understanding comes from the Greek OT, where hilasmos is a cultic term that refers to an expiatory sacrifice of atonement (Num 5:8; Ezek 44:27; 2 Mac 3:33). John interprets the death of Jesus along the same lines: the shedding of his blood on the Cross was an act of sacrifice that takes away the sins of the world (Jn 1:29; 1 Jn 1:7) (CCC 457, 614).

2:19 They went out: I.e., the heretical secessionists, who broke away from the Church in order to follow their corrupt ways. For John, their departure is a sure sign of their deviation from the apostolic faith. The comment at 2:26 suggests the apostates were not content simply to leave, but were making active attempts to carry others astray with them. Back to text.

2:20 anointed: Refers to a special grace of the Holy Spirit, which instructs believers in the truth and alerts them to false teaching (2:26-27). There is a close relationship between confessing Jesus as the Messiah (Gk. Christos, 2:22) and receiving his anointing (Gk chrisma, 2:27), for the same Spirit who anointed Jesus (Acts 10:38) dwells in the hearts of all who are baptized in his name (Acts 2:38) (CCC 695). • Isaiah foresaw the anointing of the Messiah, not with oil, like the prophets, priests, and kings of Israel, but with the Spirit of Yahweh (Is 61:1). The descending Spirit brings many gifts with him, including wisdom, understanding, and knowledge (Is 11:2). • Vatican II teaches that all the faithful, clergy and laity alike, are anointed with a supernatural insight into the gospel (known in Latin as the sensus fidei). Graced in this way, the Church as a whole, guided by the teaching authority of the pope and bishops, will always give universal consent to the truth about Christian faith and life (Lumen Gentium 12) (CCC 91-93). the Holy One: Probably refers to Jesus (Mk 1:24; Jn 6:69), though the Father bears this title, as well (Job 6:10; Is 1:4). Back to text.

2:28 confidence: Faithfulness to Christ shelters us from condemnation both now (Rom 8:1) and when he comes again to judge the world (Acts 10:42). Although individuals cannot have absolute assurance of their final salvation, they can be certain that perseverance in faith and active charity will be approved by God (Mt 25:31-46). See word study: Confidence at 1 Jn 4:17. Back to text.

3:1 children of God: Believers become sons and daughters of God by the grace of divine generation, which is received by faith (Jn 1:12-13) through the water and Spirit of Baptism (Jn 3:5). Those who are blessed in this way are entitled to God's love and protection (Jn 16:27; 17:15), empowered to love others as Jesus did (1 Jn 3:16-18; Jn 13:34), and encouraged to direct their hearts, hopes, and prayers to the Father through Christ (Lk 11:1-14; Jn 14:2-3). Note that believers are born of God by grace (1 Jn 2:29; 3:9; 4:7; 5:4), whereas Christ is the "only Son" of the Father by nature (4:9; Jn 1:18; 3:16). Paul implies such a distinction when he describes our sonship in Christ in terms of divine adoption (Gal 4:4-7) (CCC 460, 1692). and so we are: Our dignity as children of God is not in name only. It is the result of truly sharing in his divine nature (1 Jn 3:9; 2 Pet 1:4). Back to text.

3:2 see him as he is: The glory that awaits believers is nothing less than a direct vision of Christ. John implies in 3:3 what Jesus states explicitly in the Beatitudes: the vision of God is a blessing reserved for those who are pure (Mt 5:8; CCC 163, 2519). See note on 1 Cor 13:12Back to text.

3:5 there is no sin: Refers to the absolute sinlessness of Jesus (Jn 8:46; Heb 4:15; 1 Pet 2:22). Back to text.

3:6 does not sin: The point is not that sinless perfection is required to call oneself a Christian, but that true believers refuse to lead lives dominated by sin. Instead, they strive to break free from godless habits, and, whenever necessary, they seek God's mercy through confession (1:9; 2:1). This focus on the moral life leads John into a discussion about family likeness: the children of the devil act like the devil, while the children of God imitate the love of God (3:7-10). • Even now we are the children of God because we possess the firstfruits of the Spirit. However, since we are not yet fully saved or renewed, we are also children of the world. This explains why we are still able to sin. Insofar as we are sons of God by the regenerating Spirit, we cannot commit sin; and yet, if we say that we have no sin, we are only deceiving ourselves (St. Augustine, On the Merits and Remission of Sins 2, 10). Back to text.

3:7 righteous: Believers share in the righteousness of Christ as a free gift of grace (Rom 5:17). However, once established in grace, obedience to the gospel leads to a greater possession of righteousness (Rom 6:16) inasmuch as the Spirit enables us to fulfill the righteous demands of God's law (Rom 8:4). Scripture can thus speak of righteousness as an "unmerited" gift as well as something progressively "merited" through obedience, which is itself the work of grace. Back to text.

3:12 like Cain: The only direct reference to the OT in 1 John. • The actions of Cain constitute the first example of fraternal hatred in the Bible (Gen 4:1-16). His envy of Abel mirrored the devil's envy of Adam (Wis 2:24); so the murderous act that ensued made him a child of the devil, who was a "murderer from the beginning" (Jn 8:44). John is saying that hatred among fellow Christians is on a par with homicide (1 Jn 3:15). Back to text.

3:14 death into life: A transfer from one spiritual state to another (Jn 5:24). Spiritual death is a state of separation from God caused by sin (Rom 5:12; 6:23). Spiritual life, by contrast, is a state of union with God effected by the infusion of divine life into the believer (1 Jn 4:4, 9, 13, 16; 5:11-12). Back to text.

3:16 lay down our lives: The supreme expression of love according to Jesus (Jn 15:13). Some are called to a dying martyrdom, which consists of the total surrender of human life in a generous act of love and fidelity to the faith. Everyone, however, is called to a living martyrdom, which involves a lifetime of sacrifice for the love and benefit of others. John's plea to help the needy with tangible assistance is one such way of giving ourselves to others (1 Jn 3:17-18) (CCC 459, 2447). Back to text.

3:19-20 These verses are difficult to translate. Another possibility is: "By this we shall know that we are of the truth, and we shall persuade our hearts before him, if our hearts condemn us, that God is greater than our hearts and knows everything." The idea seems to be that Christians, despite being conscious of their shortcomings in life, can stand before God at the Judgment with confidence in the superabundance of his mercy. Back to text.

3:20 condemn us: The heart that convicts a believer of sin is beating with the truth. It responds with contrition and immediately seeks forgiveness from Christ (1:9). The refusal to admit sin is a sure sign of deception and alienation from the truth (1:8) (CCC 1781). God is greater: God has the power to cleanse our conscience and restore our confidence to approach him prayerfully with our needs (3:22; CCC 208). Back to text.

3:23 his commandment: The demands of faith and love that direct us to God (Jn 14:1) and our neighbor (Jn 15:12). believe in the name: I.e., believe in the Person signified by the name. Faith in the name of Jesus implies acceptance of the truth of his identity, namely, that he is "the Christ" (5:1) and "the Son of God" (5:5). The same teaching appears in the Gospel of John (e.g., Jn 1:49; 7:41; 11:27; 20:31). Back to text.

4:1 test the spirits: An appeal for spiritual discernment. Readers must distinguish lying spirits, who whisper words of deceit into the ears of the false prophets, from the Holy Spirit, whose voice is heard in the teaching of the apostles (Jn 14:26; 16:13). As a practical test, John proposes that one's confession of faith—especially in Christ's Incarnation (1 Jn 4:2)—must measure up to the apostolic gospel to be genuine and true. To confess otherwise is to contradict the Spirit (1 Cor 12:3). false prophets: The heretics who deserted John's community (2:19). Both Jesus and the apostles warned of their arrival (Mt 24:11; 1 Tim 4:1; 2 Pet 2:1). Back to text.

4:2 come in the flesh: The most serious denial of the false teachers (2 Jn 7). John makes several emphatic assertions about the physical reality of Jesus' humanity to counter this rejection (1 Jn 1:1-2; 4:14; 5:6-8; Jn 1:14). Denial of the Incarnation of Christ took many forms in Christian antiquity (CCC 465). See introduction to 1 John: Purpose. Back to text.

4:3 spirit of antichrist: A mentality hostile to the messianic dignity of Jesus. See note on 1 Jn 2:18Back to text.

4:4 he who is in you: The indwelling Spirit, who empowers us to resist deception by the strength of the truth (3:24; 4:13). This is one way believers share in Christ's victory over the devil (3:8), who still holds the unbelieving world captive in ignorance and error (5:19). Back to text.

4:6 listens to us: I.e., to the apostles (1:3-4). Back to text.

4:8 God is love: God exists as an eternal act of love, with the Father, Son, and Spirit giving themselves to one another in an everlasting embrace. This love of the Trinity, which has its eternal source in the Father, spills over into history through the sacrificial love of the Son (Rom 5:8) and the sanctifying love of the Spirit (Rom 5:5). For John, we can be sure that God lives in us if we love others as God loves—genuinely, sacrificially, unconditionally. In this way, God's trinitarian love is reflected on earth as it is in heaven (CCC 221). See note on Jn 14:31Back to text.

4:9 his only-begotten Son: The Greek can refer either to the "divine generation" of the Son or to his "uniqueness". Both senses may be intended, for neither is exclusive of the other (Jn 1:18) (CCC 444). Back to text.

4:10 expiation: An atoning sacrifice for sin. See word study: Expiation at 1 Jn 2:2. Back to text.

4:12 has ever seen God: The divine essence of God is invisible spirit (Jn 4:24). His divine love, however, is made visible in the humanity and mission of Jesus (Jn 14:9) and in the selfless charity of his followers (Jn 13:35; CCC 516). See note on Jn 1:18Back to text.

4:18 love casts out fear: The more we love God and one another, the more our ability to love increases and the closer we draw to the Source of love (4:7). Over time, the exercise of charity instills a sense of moral security that expels anxiety about our fate at the final Judgment (2:28; 4:17). Back to text.

4:19 because he first loved us: The love we receive from God gives us the capacity to return his love and spread it to others. So what was impossible for sinners alienated from God's love is now possible because of God's initiative and forgiveness (4:10, 21). True love, John is saying, originates, not in the human heart, but in God (Rom 5:5) (CCC 604, 733). Back to text.

5:1 Jesus is the Christ: For a confession of faith to be orthodox, it must affirm that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah anointed by Yahweh (2:22). The same standard applies to belief in Jesus' divine Sonship (5:5) (CCC 436, 454). See note on 1 Jn 2:18Back to text.

5:3 the love of God: Love for God is an act of the will that expresses itself in obedience to his commandments (Jn 14:15). It directs us to fulfill his law by loving one another (1 Jn 3:23) and adhering to the Ten Commandments (Rom 13:8-10). Back to text.

5:4 our faith: Faith opens the way to salvation and rescues us from the sinful world. The towering importance of faith is stressed in 1 John (3:23; 5:10, 13), as well as in the Gospel of John (Jn 1:12; 3:16-18; 5:24, etc.). See note on Jn 3:36Back to text.

Word Study

Confidence (1 Jn 4:17)

Parrēsia (Gk.): means "boldness", "courage", or "outspokenness". The term is found four times in 1 John and 27 times in the rest of the NT. Often used in the context of speech, it describes words that are clear and straightforward (Jn 11:14; 16:25), as well as words that are spoken openly and publicly (Jn 7:26; Acts 28:31). In a similar way, it refers to the confidence that believers have when they approach God with their prayers (Heb 4:16; 1 Jn 5:14). The term is used several times in 1 John for the sense of security that Christians have in their relationship with God. It is not presumption, but the filial boldness of a child before his Father that allows us to live on open terms with the Lord without a servile or inordinate fear of his judgment (1 Jn 2:28; 3:21; 4:17) (CCC 2778).

5:6 by water and blood: Alludes to the historical ministry of Jesus, which began with a baptism of water in the Jordan (Lk 3:21) and ended with a baptism of blood in Jerusalem (Lk 12:50). Again, John is emphasizing the full reality of Christ's humanity (CCC 463). Back to text.

5:7-8 A handful of late Greek manuscripts, along with a few medieval Vulgate manuscripts and the Clementine Vulgate of 1592, expand these verses with the line: "There are three who give witness in heaven: the Father, the Word, and Holy Spirit, and these three are one" (inserted either in 5:7 or in 5:8 with minimal variation). This is known as the "Johannine Comma" or the "heavenly witnesses" text. Despite the fact that this line is a clear expression of trinitarian doctrine, the Holy Office decreed in 1927 that Catholic scholarship, after careful examination of the manuscript evidence, is not bound to accept the text as part of the original wording of 1 John. The reading does not appear in the Nova Vulgata, the updated edition of the Latin Vulgate Bible approved by Pope John Paul II (1979). Back to text.

5:8 three witnesses: Evidence of Christ's humanity is present in the liturgy, where the Spirit never ceases to bring Christ to the world through the water of Baptism and the blood of the Eucharist. Faith in the Incarnation is thus supported by the joint testimony of history and liturgy. John was uniquely qualified to insist on this: he not only engaged in sacramental ministry, but he was the sole apostle to witness the Spirit, the water, and the blood come forth from the crucified body of Jesus (Jn 19:30, 34) (CCC 1108, 1225). See note on Jn 19:34. • The Mosaic Law requires joint testimony from two or three witnesses to uphold a claim in court (Deut 19:15). For other uses of this legal standard in the NT, see Jn 5:30-47 and 2 Cor 13:1. • The three witnesses become one in Baptism, for if you eliminate one of them, the sacrament ceases to be. Without the Cross of Christ, water is simply a natural element. Without water, there is no mystery of regeneration. And unless one is baptized in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, there is neither remission of sins nor reception of spiritual grace (St. Ambrose, On the Mysteries 4, 20). Back to text.

5:13 you have eternal life: John is certain, not that his readers will make it to heaven, but that they are filled with the living presence of Christ. This is how John understands "eternal life" throughout the letter (1:2; 3:14-15; 5:1-12, 20). Readers are thus assured that they possess Christ, not that they will persevere in his grace until the end. The danger still exists that the saints on earth can fall into deadly sin (5:16). Back to text.

5:14 if we ask anything: The children of God (3:1) can approach the Father with the filial confidence that he hears us and desires to meet our needs (Lk 11:9-13). This is made possible through Christ, whose holy name gives us access to the heavenly throne (Jn 14:13-14; Heb 4:16; CCC 432). Back to text.

5:16-17 John distinguishes between sin that is deadly (Gk., "unto death") and sin that is not deadly (Gk., "not unto death"). The reference is to spiritual death rather than physical death. Sinning unto death means sinning so grievously that one forfeits the indwelling "life" of Christ (5:12) and lapses back into a state of "death" (the reverse of 3:14). The evil in view is probably "apostasy", i.e., the sin of the heretical secessionists who denied the truth of apostolic doctrine (2:22) and severed themselves from the life and liturgy of the apostolic Church (2:19). Sin that does not lead to death weakens one's fellowship with God and requires cleansing and forgiveness (1:6-9) but does not extinguish the divine life abiding within (3:24). It is unclear why John does not ask believers to pray for persons guilty of deadly sins. Whatever the reason, his words do not imply that such a one is beyond the reach of God's mercy or incapable of future repentance. • Catholic moral theology adopts this distinction between mortal and non-mortal (venial) sins. Venial offenses can be forgiven by prayers of contrition and other means, but, ordinarily, mortal sins cannot be forgiven apart from the absolution and restorative grace of the Sacrament of Reconciliation (CCC 1854-64). See note on 1 Jn 1:9Back to text.

5:18-20 John concludes with a synopsis of several themes from the letter. Each verse in succession declares what believers "know" with the certitude of faith. Back to text.

5:18 does not sin: On the meaning of this, see note on 1 Jn 3:6Back to text.

5:20 the true God: An assertion of Christ's divinity that balances John's persistent emphasis on Christ's humanity (1:1-2; 4:2; 5:6-8; CCC 464). These words could describe the Father, but they more likely refer to his Son Jesus Christ in the preceding sentence. eternal life: Also a reference to Christ, who is the embodiment of divine life (1:2). Back to text.

5:21 idols: The confession that Christ is the "true God" (5:20) implies that every pagan deity is a false god unworthy of worship. Idolatry was everywhere present in Asia Minor, where John's readers probably lived (CCC 2112). Back to text.

||    The Orthodox Faith (Dogma)    ||    Family and Youth    ||    Sermons    ||    Bible Study    ||    Devotional    ||    Spirituals    ||    Fasts & Feasts    ||    Coptics    ||    Religious Education    ||    Monasticism    ||    Seasons    ||    Missiology    ||    Ethics    ||    Ecumenical Relations    ||    Church Music    ||    Pentecost    ||    Miscellaneous    ||    Saints    ||    Church History    ||    Pope Shenouda    ||    Patrology    ||    Canon Law    ||    Lent    ||    Pastoral Theology    ||    Father Matta    ||    Bibles    ||    Iconography    ||    Liturgics    ||    Orthodox Biblical topics     ||    Orthodox articles    ||    St Chrysostom    ||   

||    Bible Study    ||    Biblical topics    ||    Bibles    ||    Orthodox Bible Study    ||    Coptic Bible Study    ||    King James Version    ||    New King James Version    ||    Scripture Nuggets    ||    Index of the Parables and Metaphors of Jesus    ||    Index of the Miracles of Jesus    ||    Index of Doctrines    ||    Index of Charts    ||    Index of Maps    ||    Index of Topical Essays    ||    Index of Word Studies    ||    Colored Maps    ||    Index of Biblical names Notes    ||    Old Testament activities for Sunday School kids    ||    New Testament activities for Sunday School kids    ||    Bible Illustrations    ||    Bible short notes

||    Pope Shenouda    ||    Father Matta    ||    Bishop Mattaous    ||    Fr. Tadros Malaty    ||    Bishop Moussa    ||    Bishop Alexander    ||    Habib Gerguis    ||    Bishop Angealos    ||    Metropolitan Bishoy    ||

||    Prayer of the First Hour    ||    Third Hour    ||    Sixth Hour    ||    Ninth Hour    ||    Vespers (Eleventh Hour)    ||    Compline (Twelfth Hour)    ||    The First Watch of the midnight prayers    ||    The Second Watch of the midnight prayers    ||    The Third Watch of the midnight prayers    ||    The Prayer of the Veil    ||    Various Prayers from the Agbia    ||    Synaxarium