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The Blessed Virgin Mary in the Bible


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Honoring the Blessed Virgin Mary



"All creatures, the assembly of Angels and the human race rejoice in You, O Blessed One."


From the early times of Christianity, the Blessed Virgin Mary, because of Her great virtues, Her help to the needy, and Her preeminent role in God's plan for the salvation of mankind, held a distinct position of admiration and love among Christians.


The honoring of the Holy Virgin began from the time when the Archangel Gabriel greeted Her with the words: "Rejoice, O Blessed One, the Lord is with Thee! Blessed art Thou among women!" announcing to Her the mystery of the conception of the Son of God. A few days later with the words "Blessed is the Fruit of Thy womb," the righteous Elizabeth saluted the pure Virgin. St. Luke explains in his Gospel that the Holy Spirit revealed to Elizabeth that Mary had become the Mother of the Lord, the promised Savior of mankind (Luke 1:28-42).


The Orthodox Church expresses reverence toward the Blessed Virgin by the many feast days commemorating the various events in Her life. In prayers the Virgin Mary is called Theotokos, which in Greek means the Mother of God, since the One Who was born from Her was at the time of conception and always will be the true God.


Many Christian preachers and poets composed prayers, songs of praise (called Akathists) (from the Greek, meaning not-sitting) and inspirational sermons in honor of the Virgin Mary. With all this reverence for the Blessed Virgin Mary, Theotokos, it is consoling and enlightening to learn how she lived, how she prepared herself, and how she blossomed to such a spiritual height as to become the receptacle for the incarnate Word of God.


Several prophecies of the Old Testament foretold of the incarnation of the Son of God and of the blessed Woman who would become a tool for the salvation of mankind. The very first promise concerning the Redeemer, heard by our fallen ancestors Adam and Eve, contained a prophecy about a special Woman. God said to the devil: "I shall put enmity between thee and the Woman, and between thy seed and Her Seed" (Genesis 3:15). It should be noted that during the time of the Old Testament the progeny were always called the seed or descendent of a male parent. Only here is the Redeemer-to-Come referred to as the Seed of the Woman, and this was the first indication that He would have no human father. Many centuries afterward the prophet Isaiah added important details to this first prophecy of Genesis. He said that the Woman, Who will give birth to the Messiah-Emmanuel, will be a virgin. "God Himself shall give you a sign," explained the prophet Isaiah to the disbelieving descendants of king David, — "the Virgin shall accept into her womb and bear a Son, and shall name Him Emmanuel, which means: God is with us" (Isaiah 7:14). Even though the word "Virgin" did not seem right to the ancient Hebrews, since a birth without fail conjectured conjugal cohabitation, they did not dare to substitute another more "appropriate" word, for example, "woman." Another important message in the prophecy of Isaiah about the coming Messiah is that He will be God Himself. Hence the title Theotokos — "birth-giver of God" — given to the Virgin Mary by the ancient Church.




The Life of  the Virgin Mary


As we know from early Christian writings, the Apostle Luke the Evangelist personally knew the Virgin Mary and based several chapters of His Gospel on Her recollections. He even quoted Her exact words several times. He was a physician and an artist, and because of his affection for Her, he painted Her portrait, from which later icon painters made copies.


The Birth of the Most Holy Virgin Mary. As time drew near for the Redeemer of the world to be born, there lived in the town of Nazareth, in Galilee, a man by the name of Joachim with his wife Anna. Joachim was a direct descendant of King David but lived a very modest and simple life. Both he and his wife were God-fearing people and were known for their humility and compassion. They never had children and, being very aged, had little chance at having any. However, not willing to despair, they continued to ask God to send them a child. They even made a vow that if they had an infant, they would dedicate that child to the service of God. At that time, to be childless meant to be punished by God for sins. Childlessness was especially difficult for Joachim since, according to prophecy, the Messiah-Christ was to be born into his family line. Owing to their patience and faith, the Lord finally sent them a great joy: Anna had a daughter. The newborn child was given the name of Mary, which means in Hebrew "Mistress-Hope."


Presentation to the Temple. When the Virgin Mary became three years old, Her God-fearing parents prepared themselves to carry out their vow: they took Her to the temple in Jerusalem in order to consecrate Her to God. Mary was left to stay at the temple, in a special school for girls. There She, with the other maidens, was taught the Law of God as well as handiwork. She prayed and read the Scriptures. The Blessed Virgin lived at the temple for approximately eleven years and grew up to be deeply pious and obedient to Him, as well as very modest and industrious. Willing only to serve God, She gave a vow to never marry and to remain forever a virgin.


The Holy Virgin Mary at Joseph's. Since Joachim and Anna were in advanced old age, they did not live for long after Her presentation to the temple, and the Virgin Mary was left an orphan. When She reached Her fourteenth birthday, according to the law, She could no longer stay at the temple and had to wed. The High Priest, being aware of Her vow but reluctant to violate the law of marriage, formally betrothed Her to a distant relative of Hers, the widowed octogenarian Joseph, who promised to care for her and protect her virginity. Joseph lived in the town of Nazareth and also came from the lineage of King David. He was not a wealthy man and worked as a carpenter. Joseph had children from his first marriage: Judah, Simon, James (the Lesser) and Joses (Matthew 13:55), whom the Gospels refer to as "brethren" of Jesus. The Virgin Mary led as modest and solitary a life in the home of Joseph as She did in the temple.


The Annunciation. During Her first year in the house of Joseph, about six months after the appearance of the Angel Gabriel to Zacharias (see Luke 1:8-25), as the birth of the prophet John the Baptist was approaching, the forenamed Angel was sent by God into the town of Nazareth to the Holy Virgin with the joyous news that the Lord had chosen Her to become the Mother of the Savior of the world. The Angel, having appeared, told Her, "Rejoice, O Blessed One! (literally, "filled with grace") The Lord is with Thee! Blessed art Thou amongst women." Mary was puzzled by the words of the Angel and unsure what this greeting was supposed to mean. The Angel continued by saying to Her: "Fear not, Mary, for Thou hast found favor with God. And therefore, Thou wilt bear a Son and shalt name Him Jesus. He shall be great and shall be known as the Son of the Most-high, and to His Kingdom there shall be no end." Still puzzled, Mary asked the Angel: "How can that be, since I know not a man?" The Angel replied that this would be accomplished by the power of the omnipotent God: "The Holy Spirit shall come upon Thee, and the power of the Most-high shall overshadow Thee; therefore, accordingly, that Holy One which shall be born of Thee shall be called the Son of God. Your relative, Elizabeth, not having had any offspring till her very old age, shall soon give birth to a son; for with God nothing shall be impossible." Then Mary humbly answered, "Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word" (Luke 1:26-38). After this reply the Holy Spirit descended upon Mary, and She conceived the Word of God. Thus, in the most modest circumstances happened the greatest miracle in the life of mankind! Here the Infinite joined the finite; the Light, unapproachable to Angels, descended into the Virgin's womb!




•His conception (Luke 1:2) and his development in the womb, including the fetal development of John the Baptist (Lk 1:43)

Christ’s Birth Announced to Mary


Mary Visits Elizabeth



Now Mary arose in those days and went into the hill country with haste, to a city of Judah,  and entered the house of Zacharias and greeted Elizabeth.  And it happened, when Elizabeth heard the greeting of Mary, that the babe leaped in her womb; and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit.  Then she spoke out with a loud voice and said, “Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb!  But why is this granted to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?  For indeed, as soon as the voice of your greeting sounded in my ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy.  Blessed is she who believed, for there will be a fulfillment of those things which were told her from the Lord.”

The Song of Mary


 And Mary said:


      “ My soul magnifies the Lord, And my spirit has rejoiced in God my Savior.

        For He has regarded the lowly state of His maidservant;

      For behold, henceforth all generations will call me blessed.

        For He who is mighty has done great things for me,

      And holy is His name.

        And His mercy is on those who fear Him

      From generation to generation.

        He has shown strength with His arm;

      He has scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts.

        He has put down the mighty from their thrones,

      And exalted the lowly.

        He has filled the hungry with good things,

      And the rich He has sent away empty.

        He has helped His servant Israel,

      In remembrance of His mercy,

        As He spoke to our fathers,

      To Abraham and to his seed forever.”


 And Mary remained with her about three months, and returned to her house.

Birth of John the Baptist


 Now Elizabeth’s full time came for her to be delivered, and she brought forth a son.  When her neighbors and relatives heard how the Lord had shown great mercy to her, they rejoiced with her.

Circumcision of John the Baptist

In discussing this Angelic appearance, the Fathers of the Church underline the wisdom of the young Mary. She was careful not to accept Gabriel's message in haste, remembering what happened to Eve when she believed the serpent. Although God decided to make the Virgin Mary the Mother of the Savior, He wanted Her voluntary consent because He never overpowers or disregards the gift of free will that He gave us.


Visiting the righteous Elizabeth. Having heard that her relative Elizabeth, the wife of the priest Zacharias, would soon bear a son, Mary hastened to visit her. On entering the house, She saluted Elizabeth. Upon hearing Mary's voice, Elizabeth, being filled with the Holy Spirit, recognized Mary to be worthy to become the Mother of the Lord. She cried out aloud and said: "Blessed art Thou among women, and Blessed is the Fruit of Thy womb! And from whence is such happiness for me, that the Mother of my Lord should come to me?"


The Virgin Mary, in answer to Elizabeth's greeting, glorified God with the following words: "My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my savior. For He hath regarded the low estate of His handmaiden: for behold from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. For He that is mighty hath done to me great things; and Holy is His name. And His mercy is on them that fear him from generation to generation" (Luke 1:46-50). Mary stayed with Elizabeth for about three months and then returned to Nazareth.


When the righteous, aged Joseph learned that Mary was expecting a child, he was scandalized, assuming that something had gone very wrong. Jewish law required unfaithful wives to be mercilessly stoned. But God revealed to Joseph not to be afraid of what had happened and to be kind to Mary. The Angel of God appeared to Joseph in his sleep and told him that Mary would bear a Son through the action of the Holy Spirit, just as the Lord God had predicted through the prophet Isaiah (Is 7:14) and the Angel commanded Joseph to give Him the name "Jesus" Savior — because He shall save people from their sins.


The subsequent Evangelical narratives mention the Virgin Mary in conjunction with the events in the life of Her Son, our Lord Jesus Christ. Thus, they speak of Her in connection with the birth of Christ in Bethlehem, then His circumcision, the worship of the Magi, the offering brought to the temple on the 40th day, the flight into Egypt, settling in Nazareth, traveling to Jerusalem for the feast of Passover when He reached His twelfth birthday, and so forth. We will not dwell on those events here. It should be noted that though the Evangelical references to the Virgin Mary are concise, they give the reader a clear comprehension of Her great moral eminence: Her humility, great faith, patience, courage, obedience to God, love and dedication to Him, and devotion to Her Divine Son. From these incidental but characteristic references we see why, in the words of the Angel, She became worthy "to attain favor from God."


The first miracle performed by Jesus Christ, at the wedding feast in Cana of Galilee, gives us an insight into the great kindness of His Mother and into Her influence on Her Son. These qualities made Her a powerful intercessor for all Christians, especially for those who suffer or are oppressed. Having noticed a shortage of wine at the wedding feast, the Blessed Virgin drew the attention of Her Son to that fact, and though the Lord answered Her cryptically "What is it to Me and You Woman? My hour has not yet come," She was not discouraged by this rebuke, being sure that Her Son would not ignore Her plea. She told the servants: "Whatever He tells you, do this." As can be seen from this forewarning to the servants, this undertaking would come to a favorable end.


Indeed, Her intercession drew divine intervention to an event in the life of a poor, little-known family. Thus happened the first miracle of Jesus, after which "His disciples believed in Him" (John 2:11).


The Gospels depict the Mother of God as having constant concern for Her Son, following Him in His journeys, always ready to help Him at any time, caring for His well-being and tranquility at home, which He always refused to take advantage of. Finally, we see Her standing in indescribable grief by the Cross of Her Crucified Son, hearing His final words and commandments, entrusting Her care to His beloved pupil. Not a word of reproach or despair left Her lips. She conceded all to the will of God. This was the time of Her supreme greatness.


Again, briefly, there is mention of the Virgin Mary in the Acts of the Holy Apostles when, upon Her as well as the Apostles, on the day of Pentecost, the Holy Spirit descended in the form of fiery tongues. After that, according to tradition, She lived some 10 to 20 years. Fulfilling the Lord's will, the Apostle John the Theologian, author of the fourth Gospel, took Her into his home, and with great love, as if being Her own son, he cared for Her till Her very end. When the Christian faith spread to other countries, many Christians came from far off countries to see and hear Her. From that time the Most Holy Virgin Mary became a mother to all of Christ's pupils and a high example of virtue.


The Dormition (called the Assumption by the Roman-Catholic church). Once, as the Holy Virgin prayed on the Mount of Olives (near Jerusalem), the Angel Gabriel appeared to Her, as he had the first time in Nazareth, holding in his hand a branch with a white flower from Paradise, and announced to Her that in three days Her earthly life would come to an end and that the Lord would take Her to Him. The Lord arranged it so that toward that time the Apostles congregated in Jerusalem from the many parts of the world where they were preaching. At the hour of Her end, a bright light illuminated the room in which the Virgin Mary was lying. The Lord Jesus Christ Himself, surrounded by Angels, appeared and received Her most pure soul. The Apostles buried Her holy body, according to Her wish, at the foot of the Mount of Olives in the Garden of Gethsemane, in the cave where reposed the bodies of her parents and of the righteous Joseph. During the burial, many miracles came to pass. By touching the bier of the Mother of God, the blind regained their sight, demons were exorcised, and many diseases were cured.


Three days after the burial of the Theotokos, there arrived belatedly the Apostle Thomas, who had missed the burial. He was very distraught at not having paid his last respects to the Mother of Jesus and wished to see Her body for the last time. When the cave in which the Virgin Mary was buried was opened, Her body was not found, but only Her burial clothes. The Apostles returned to their home in amazement. In the evening during their prayers, they heard Angels singing. Glancing upward, the Apostles saw the Most Holy Virgin surrounded by Angels, in radiant heavenly glory. She said to the Apostles: "Rejoice! I am with you for all the days and nights."


She has been fulfilling this promise to help and defend Christians to the present day, having become our heavenly Mother. For Her great love and all-powerful help, Christians always have honored Her and turned to Her for help, appealing to Her as the "Fervent intercessor for the Christian race, the Joy of all those who grieve, Who did not abandon us after Her Dormition." From these earliest times, following the example of the prophet Isaiah and the righteous Elizabeth, all Christians began to address Her as the Mother of God or Theotokos, and this title was confirmed during the Third Ecumenical Council (431 AD) in Ephesus.


The Most Holy Virgin Mary serves as great example to all those who are striving for perfection. She was the first who decided to dedicate Her whole life to God and who showed that voluntary virginity is higher than wedded life. From the first centuries, in emulating Her and Her Son and other prophets and apostles, many Christians began to pass their life in virginity, prayer, fasting, meditation and contemplation. Thus, the monastic life arose, and there appeared many monasteries which became sources of inspiration for a pious life and spiritual wisdom. Unfortunately, the present ungodly world does not appreciate and even sometimes ridicules the advancement of virginity, disregarding the words of the Lord: "For there are eunuchs who were born thus from their mother's womb, and there are eunuchs who were made eunuchs by men, and there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs (virgins) for the kingdom of heaven's sake." To this the Lord added this very unambiguous directive: "He who is able to accept it, let him accept it" (Matthew 19:12).


In reviewing the earthly life of the Theotokos, it is essential to emphasize that, just as at the moment of Her greatest glory, when She was chosen to become the Mother of the Savior, as well as at the hour of Her greatest grief, by the prophecy of the righteous Simon, as She stood at the foot of the Cross when "a weapon pierced Her soul," She displayed complete self-control and faith in God. In all events, big or small, She invariably manifested the strength and beauty of Her virtues: humility, perseverance, patience, courage, hope in the Lord and unbounded love for Him! That is why we Christians hold Her in such high esteem and want to emulate Her.





Contemporary Apparitions


of the Mother of God


From the very first days after Her Dormition to the present time, the Most Holy Virgin has been giving succor to Christians. This belief is substantiated by accounts of Her appearances and especially by the multitude of miracles performed by Her icons. We shall mention here some of Her apparitions and miraculous icons.


Protection of the Holy Virgin. This feast was established in remembrance of Her apparition during the siege of Constantinople [Istanbul] in the middle of the 9th century. The Slavs [Variags], at that time pagans surrounded the city of Constantinople by sea and land with a huge army. Christians inside the city rushed to their churches with prayers for divine help. A beggar in the city, Saint Andrew the Fool-for-Christ's-sake, was in the church of Vlahern praying all night with many other Christians. In the fourth hour of the night, the Saint saw a majestic Woman, the Virgin Mary, coming forth above the royal gates (in the middle of the sanctuary) accompanied by John the Baptist, John the Theologian, and many saints, some preceding and some following Her, singing hymns and praying. Saint Andrew approached his pupil Epiphanius and asked if he also saw the Queen of the world. "I see Her and tremble," answered the latter. And while they looked, She stood above of the sanctuary and prayed for a long time.


Then the Virgin Mary removed Her veil and spread it over the church and the city. Saint Andrew told the people about this apparition of the Holy Virgin. Encouraged, they made a procession along the walls of the city and submerged in the sea an icon of the Virgin Mary. A few hours afterward a great storm arose and destroyed most of the enemy ships. The Slavs who survived retreated, and the town was saved. From that time many Slavs started to convert to Christianity. Saint Andrew by birth was also a Slav. Perhaps explains why Russians so greatly honor this appearance of the Mother of God to him and dedicate to this miracle the feast of the Protection of the Holy Virgin, which is celebrated each year on October 1/14.


The information that follows regarding other appearances of the Mother of God is drawn from foreign publications. Our Church has not as yet voiced its opinion on these events, and we cite them here simply as supplemental information.


Fatima, Portugal. On March 13, 1917, not long before the revolution in Russia, the Virgin Mary, surrounded by a radiance, appeared in Fatima, Portugal, to three shepherd children. For several months She continued to appear to the children, and at one of Her appearances five to eighteen thousand people convened from all parts of Portugal. An unforgettable miracle occurred when, after a torrential rain, unexpectedly there came an unusual light, and in an instant the people's soaked clothes became dry. The Virgin Mary was summoning the people to prayer and foretold the forthcoming conversion of Russia from godlessness to faith in God. The Roman Catholic Church later interpreted Her words as foretelling the conversion of Russia to Catholicism. However, this was not what the Virgin said. Now, as the Russian people turn back to God and to their Orthodox faith, we are witnessing the fulfillment of this prophecy.


Egypt. For more than a year from April 2, 1968, the Virgin Mary appeared in Zeitun, a suburb of Cairo, above a church dedicated to Her name. Her appearances, which usually occurred between midnight and five in the morning, attracted a multitude of worshipers. The Mother of God was surrounded by radiance as bright as the sun, and around Her there hovered white doves. Soon all of Egypt heard of the appearances of the Mother of God, and the government became concerned that these public gatherings at the site of Her appearances should proceed in an orderly fashion. The local papers wrote in Arabic about these apparitions of the Holy Virgin, and several press-conferences were held about them, during which people shared their impressions regarding what they had heard from Her. The Mother of God also visited individuals in the suburbs of Cairo, such as the Coptic patriarch who was skeptical of Her appearing to the people. During the appearances of the Mother of God there occurred many cures that were confirmed by local doctors.


The Washington Post on July 5th, 1968, wrote of additional appearances of the Theotokos over the Church of St. Damian, in the industrial area of Terra Gulaki, north of Cairo. The Virgin Mary was seen holding the infant Jesus in Her arms, and accompanying Her were several saints, among them St. Damian. As elsewhere, Her appearances were accompanied by many cures of incurable diseases: blindness, kidney and heart diseases and many others.


Medjugorje, Yugoslavia. From June of 1981 the Virgin Mary started to appear on a hill in Medjugorje. At these appearances there sometimes congregated as many as ten thousand people. Many saw Her surrounded by unearthly radiance. Then the appearances to the public stopped, and the Blessed Virgin began to appear regularly to six young people, speaking to them. Italian and other newspapers described these events, and Medjugorje became a place of constant pilgrimage by the faithful from all parts of the world. Our Lady slowly disclosed to the young people 10 mysteries, which they must impart to church representatives in due course. The Holy Virgin promised that on the third day after revealing Her last mystery She will leave a visible "sign" for the faithful. Representatives of the medical world and other highly-respectable people testify that the young people who have been seeing the Blessed Virgin were absolutely normal, and that their outward reactions to these appearances were natural. Often, the Virgin Mary, while weeping, told the young people of the necessity to establish peace on the earth: "Peace, peace! The earth will not be saved until peace is established over it. It will happen only when people find God. The Lord means life. Those who have sound belief in Him will attain life and peace… Christians have forgotten prayer and fasting." It is interesting to note that in Medjugorje, where atheism had predominated and where there were a lot of communist party members, most of the Medjugorjians became believers and renounced communism. Also in conjunction with the apparitions of the Mother of God in Medjugorje, there occurred many miraculous cures.


Lvov, Ukraine. At Easter 1985 in the town of Lvov, during the celebration of the Liturgy by the Metropolitan John at the Cathedral of the Holy Virgin Mary, in view of a great throng of faithful there suddenly appeared through the window pane a cloud as bright as a ray of sunlight. It slowly took the shape of a human form, and all acknowledged it to be the Holy Virgin. In a spiritual impulse, the people started to pray aloud and call upon Her for help. People standing outside also saw in the window the image of the Holy Virgin Mary and tried to enter and prayed aloud. The throng kept increasing as news of the miracle spread with the speed of lightning. All efforts of the militia to disperse those praying were in vain. People started to come from Kiev, the Pochayevskaya Lavra, Moscow, Tbilisi and other towns. The governor of Lvov requested that Moscow send some experts to investigate what was going on. The scholars began to argue that there were no miracles so that the people should disperse. Suddenly the Blessed Virgin spoke: "Pray; repent from your sins, since there is little time left …" After this She cured many cripples and sick. The vision of the Virgin Mary and the cures continued for three and a half weeks, and She spoke much on the salvation of mankind, as the people remained there day and night.





Some Miraculous Icons


of the Blessed Virgin Mary


It is customary to name the miraculous icons of the Virgin Mary according to the towns in which they originated.


The Vladimirskaya Icon is one of the most ancient miraculous icons of the Mother of God. In the middle of the 5th century the Icon was transported from Jerusalem to Constantinople, and in the middle of the 12th century it was sent by the patriarch to Kiev, to the Grand Duke Yury Dolgoruky, and was placed in the Dievichy monastery in Vyshgorod. In 1155 Prince Andrew of Vyshgorod, when traveling to the North, took with him the miraculous Icon of the Blessed Virgin. On the way, there were held short divine services praising the Lord (Te Deums), and miracles occurred. On the banks of the Klyazma river the steeds carrying the Icon could not move. The prince called that place Bogolubov, that is, Beloved by God, and built there two stone churches, into one of which the Icon was placed. On September 21, 1160, the Icon was transferred into the church at Vladimir, and from then on it has been known as the "Vladimirskaya." Since 1395 the Icon has been located in the Uspensky Cathedral in Moscow, to the left of the royal gates. The Icon became famous due to many miracles performed. Before this Icon Russian tsars were anointed as rulers, and metropolitans were appointed. The feast day of the Icon is celebrated on August 26/September 8, as well as on May 21/June 3 in honor of the liberation of Moscow in 1521 from its bondage to the Crimean Khan.


The Icon of Kazan. In 1579, a nine-year-old girl by the name of Matrona, whose parents' house burned down during the 1579 fire in Kazan, saw in a dream the image of the Blessed Virgin Mary and heard a voice commanding her to retrieve a holy Icon hidden in the ashes of the burned house. The holy Icon was discovered wrapped in an old cloth under the stove, where it was buried, most likely during the rule of the Tartars when Christians were forced to conceal their faith. The holy Icon was triumphantly transported to the nearest church, the Church of St. Nicholas, and later to the Cathedral of the Annunciation, where it received renown for curing the blind. A copy was made of the Icon and sent to the tsar, Ivan the Terrible. In honor of its arrival, a special feast day was established on the July 8/21.


The Icon of Znamenia, which means "The Sign," also known as the Icon of Kursk. It was found on September 8, 1295, by a hunter at the root of a tree on the bank of the Tuskor River in the province of Kursk. When he took the Icon in his hands, a spring of water came from under the tree. The hunter built a chapel near the tree and placed the Icon therein. From that time the Icon began to perform many miracles. In 1383 the Tartars of the Crimea, devastating the province, cut the Icon into two parts and threw them into opposite directions. They took as prisoner the priest Bogolyub, who performed the services in the chapel. Having been redeemed by the envoys of the Grand Duke of Moscow, Bogolyub found the split pieces of the Icon, joined them, and miraculously they grew together. In 1597 the Icon was brought to Moscow by the will of Tsar Feodor Ioannovich. In view of the return of the holy relic, a monastery was founded which was given the name of the Root Hermitage. Since the time of Tsar Feodor Ioannovich, the Icon has been encased in a cypress board, with the portrayal of the Lord Sabaoth above and of Prophets on the sides.


In 1612 the Icon miraculously saved Kursk from being captured by the Poles. The grateful inhabitants built the monastery of Znamenie, into which the Icon was brought every year and stayed from the 12th of September until the Friday of the 9th week of Easter. The rest of the time it remained at the Hermitage.


On March 7, 1898 the Icon remained unharmed during an attempt by revolutionaries to blow it up in the cathedral of the Znamensky monastery. After midnight a bomb placed under the Icon went off with a terrible noise. Everything around was torn apart and scattered. Only the Icon remained intact. During the revolution the Icon was also stolen in April of 1918, but was miraculously found in a well several months later. Finally the Icon was taken from Russia in 1920 by Bishop Theophan of Kursk and placed in Holy Trinity Church in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. This Holy Image rendered great assistance when Belgrade was bombarded during the Second World War. Bombs never fell on the houses visited by the Icon, although they destroyed the surrounding areas. Presently the Icon resides in the Znamenia Cathedral in New York City, though from time to time it is taken to different temples of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad for adoration. Every year numerous healings continue to flow from this Holy Icon.


The Weeping Icons. During the past 100 to 150 years there have appeared several Icons of the Blessed Virgin Mary with flowing tears. These miraculous events most probably point to the grief the Virgin Mary feels toward mankind at the approach of the antichrist.


In February of 1854, in the Romanian Orthodox monastery of Sokol, one of the Icons of the Blessed Virgin Mary began to weep. This miracle coincided with the Crimean war in Russia and drew thousands of pilgrims daily. The weeping sometimes occurred every day, and sometimes at intervals of 2 to 3 days.


In March of 1960, a lithograph of the Icon of the Virgin Mary, known as that of the "Passion," that belonged to a Greek Orthodox family from Long Island, New York, began to weep. When the Icon was transported to the Cathedral of St. Paul, white doves hovered above the Icon. The paper on which the Icon was imprinted became wrinkled from the copious flow of the tears. At times the tears appeared bloody, and pious pilgrims pressed pieces of cotton to the Icon to take home and apply to the ill. Shortly afterward a lithograph of the Icon of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Iveron that belonged to another Greek Orthodox family in that same area also began to flow tears. These two weeping Icons drew a great number of praying people, and both local and foreign papers have described the great number of miracles emanating from them. One of the Icons has been examined by scientists in order to determine the origin of this fountain of tears, and scholars at the University of British Columbia confirmed the fact that the tears did flow but could not explain this from a scientific point of view (Orthodox Life, 1960, n. 8, p. 8).


On December 6, 1986, the Icon of the Blessed Virgin Mary on the altar screen in the Albanian Church of St. Nicholas the Complaisant, in Chicago, began to weep. This miracle has been attracting up to five thousand people to the church who wished to see this miraculous Icon with their own eyes. The weeping Icon was painted 23 years ago by a Manhattan painter by the name of Constantine Yussis. A specially gathered committee confirmed that "there could be no explanation of this enigma."


The Myrrh-Pouring Icon. An Orthodox Chilean by the name of Joseph (Jose), who had been living on Mount Athos since 1981, saw in a monastery a copy of the Iveron Icon of the Blessed Virgin Mary and wished to own it. At first he received a refusal; then unexpectedly the abbot handed the image over to him with the words: "Take it, this Icon must go with you!" Joseph brought the Icon to Montreal. On November 24, 1982, at 3 o'clock in the morning, Joseph's room was filled with a wondrous fragrance: on the surface of the Icon appeared drops of wondrously fragrant myrrh. The Archbishop Vitaly of Canada, now Metropolitan and Chief Hierarch of the Russian Church Abroad, offered to bring the Icon to the Russian cathedral in Montreal. Since then the Icon has Russian Orthodox churches in several countries. Sometimes during services attended by multitudes, the myrrh appeared not only on the icon itself, but on the outer surface of the glass, before the eyes of those praying, and even starting to drip on the floor, filling the church with a wondrous fragrance. It is remarkable that each year during Passion Week the Holy myrrh would stop flowing from the Icon and then resume its flow after Easter. The Icon was responsible for many wondrous cures.


Tragically, on October 31, 1997 while in Athens, Greece, Joseph was murdered and the icon mysteriously disappeared. A copy of this icon resides in St. John the Baptist Cathedral in Washington, DC.


It is impossible to enumerate here all the miraculous icons of the Blessed Virgin Mary. After the revolution in Russia many ancient icons began to restore themselves (become shining, as if newly painted). On occasion, in front of a person's eyes, old and dark icons have lightened as if new. There are thousands of such self-restored icons. The faithful saw in these miracles signs of the forthcoming spiritual revival in Russia.


Miracles and apparitions do not occur without cause. Most likely the miraculous apparitions of the Virgin Mary are meant to awaken our faith in God and a sense of repentance. Unfortunately, many in our day have become deaf to spiritual subjects, are turning their back to God, and choose a pagan way of life. But we, Orthodox Christians, should always remember our Heavenly Mother, our Intercessor at the Lord's Altar, and ask Her guidance and protection. O most holy Theotokos, save us!







Prayers to


the Virgin Mary


Virgin Mary, our most gracious Queen and our hope; shelter of orphans, and protector of travelers, joy of the grieving, interceder for the abused! See our distress; see our affliction. Assist us, for we are helpless; direct us, for we are strangers. You know our offense, — ease it as You will. For we have no other help but Yours; no other intercessor, nor gracious consoler but You. O Virgin Mary. Protect us and shelter us for all time. Amen.



Troparion: It is truly meet to bless Thee, O Theotokos, the ever blessed and most immaculate, and the Mother of our God. More honorable than the Cherubim and more glorious beyond compare than the Seraphim. Thee, who without defilement gavest birth to God the Word, the true Mother of God, we magnify Thee.



Vesper's Troparion: Theotokos Virgin! Rejoice Blessed Mary, the Lord is with You! Blessed are You among women, and blessed is the Fruit of Your womb, because You gave birth to the Savior of our souls.





 So it was, on the eighth day, that they came to circumcise the child; and they would have called him by the name of his father, Zacharias.  His mother answered and said, “No; he shall be called John.”

 But they said to her, “There is no one among your relatives who is called by this name.”  So they made signs to his father—what he would have him called.

 And he asked for a writing tablet, and wrote, saying, “His name is John.” So they all marveled.  Immediately his mouth was opened and his tongue loosed, and he spoke, praising God.  Then fear came on all who dwelt around them; and all these sayings were discussed throughout all the hill country of Judea.  And all those who heard them kept them in their hearts, saying, “What kind of child will this be?” And the hand of the Lord was with him.

Zacharias’ Prophecy


 Now his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Spirit, and prophesied, saying:

        “ Blessed is the Lord God of Israel,

      For He has visited and redeemed His people,

        And has raised up a horn of salvation for us

      In the house of His servant David,

        As He spoke by the mouth of His holy prophets,

      Who have been since the world began,

        That we should be saved from our enemies

      And from the hand of all who hate us,

        To perform the mercy promised to our fathers

      And to remember His holy covenant,

        The oath which He swore to our father Abraham:

        To grant us that we,

      Being delivered from the hand of our enemies,

      Might serve Him without fear,

        In holiness and righteousness before Him all the days of our life.

        “ And you, child, will be called the prophet of the Highest;

      For you will go before the face of the Lord to prepare His ways,

        To give knowledge of salvation to His people

      By the remission of their sins,

        Through the tender mercy of our God,

      With which the Dayspring from on high has visited[e] us;

        To give light to those who sit in darkness and the shadow of death,

      To guide our feet into the way of peace.”


•His birth (Lk 2:7)

•Offering Him to God (Lk 2:22)

•Early childhood (Lk 2:22-38)

•His confirmation at 12 years old (Lk 2:49)



Christ Born of Mary

  And it came to pass in those days that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be registered.  This census first took place while Quirinius was governing Syria.  So all went to be registered, everyone to his own city.

 Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and lineage of David,  to be registered with Mary, his betrothed wife,[a] who was with child.  So it was, that while they were there, the days were completed for her to be delivered.  And she brought forth her firstborn Son, and wrapped Him in swaddling cloths, and laid Him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn.

Glory in the Highest


 Now there were in the same country shepherds living out in the fields, keeping watch over their flock by night.  And behold,[b] an angel of the Lord stood before them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were greatly afraid.  Then the angel said to them, “Do not be afraid, for behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy which will be to all people.  For there is born to you this day in the city of David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord.  And this will be the sign to you: You will find a Babe wrapped in swaddling cloths, lying in a manger.”

 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God and saying:

        “ Glory to God in the highest,

      And on earth peace, goodwill toward men!”[c]


 So it was, when the angels had gone away from them into heaven, that the shepherds said to one another, “Let us now go to Bethlehem and see this thing that has come to pass, which the Lord has made known to us.”  And they came with haste and found Mary and Joseph, and the Babe lying in a manger.  Now when they had seen Him, they made widely[d] known the saying which was told them concerning this Child.  And all those who heard it marveled at those things which were told them by the shepherds.  But Mary kept all these things and pondered them in her heart.  Then the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told them.

Circumcision of Jesus


 And when eight days were completed for the circumcision of the Child,[e] His name was called JESUS, the name given by the angel before He was conceived in the womb.

Jesus Presented in the Temple


 Now when the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were completed, they brought Him to Jerusalem to present Him to the Lord  (as it is written in the law of the Lord, “Every male who opens the womb shall be called holy to the LORD”),[f]  and to offer a sacrifice according to what is said in the law of the Lord, “A pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons.”[g]

Simeon Sees God’s Salvation


 And behold, there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon, and this man was just and devout, waiting for the Consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him.  And it had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not see death before he had seen the Lord’s Christ.  So he came by the Spirit into the temple. And when the parents brought in the Child Jesus, to do for Him according to the custom of the law,  he took Him up in his arms and blessed God and said:

        “ Lord, now You are letting Your servant depart in peace,

      According to Your word;

        For my eyes have seen Your salvation

        Which You have prepared before the face of all peoples,

        A light to bring revelation to the Gentiles,

      And the glory of Your people Israel.”


 And Joseph and His mother[h] marveled at those things which were spoken of Him.  Then Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary His mother, “Behold, this Child is destined for the fall and rising of many in Israel, and for a sign which will be spoken against  (yes, a sword will pierce through your own soul also), that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.”

Anna Bears Witness to the Redeemer


 Now there was one, Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was of a great age, and had lived with a husband seven years from her virginity;  and this woman was a widow of about eighty-four years,[i] who did not depart from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day.  And coming in that instant she gave thanks to the Lord,[j] and spoke of Him to all those who looked for redemption in Jerusalem.

The Family Returns to Nazareth


 So when they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned to Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth.  And the Child grew and became strong in spirit,[k] filled with wisdom; and the grace of God was upon Him.


•His start in public ministry and the first of his miracles, which she instigated. (Wedding at Cana Jn 2:3)

•His death on Calvary (Jn 19:26)

•The birth of the Church at the Pentecost (Acts 1:14).


(Acts 1:14, 2:3)

A mother's role does not end with the birth of a child. Actually, that's when it starts to get intense. Mary and Joseph were trying to keep Jesus from being killed by Herod.






Bible passages We feel are related to Mary

•Genesis 3:15, 24:43-46 - Rebecca, 28:12 Jacob's Ladder, 30:13?


•Exodus 3:11-12, 13:2, 13:14 (Magnificat), 15:20, 21, 26 (Magnificat), 25:8 Ark, 34:19-20


•Leviticus 12:2, 8 (Purification)


•Numbers 18:15 (Presentation)


•Judges 6:12, 15 (Annunciation)


•1 Samuel 2:1-10 (Magnificat)


•Isaiah 7:14 (Virgin Birth)


•Ezekiel 44:2 (Mary's perpetual Virginity)


•Mat 1:16, 18-25 (Mary to be found with Child), 2:11, 13-14, 20-23 (Maji flight to Egypt), 12:46-50 (Who is my mother?), 13:55 (is his mother not Mary?)


•Mark 3:31-35 (Your mother is outside), 6:3 (is he not son of Mary?)


•Luke 1:26-56 (Annunciation, visitation magnificat), 2:5-7, 16-19, 22, 33-35, 39, 41-51 (Nativity, shepherds, presentation, finding in the temple), 8:19-21 (Your mother outside) 11:27-28 Blessed is the womb that bore you


•John 1:14 (incarnation), 2:1-5 (Cana), 6:42 (Do we not know his mother), 19:25-27


•Acts 1:14 (Gathered in prayer with Mary), Gal 4:4 (God sent son born of woman)


•Col 1:15, 18 (first born, Head of body)


•Rev 11:19 (Ark in Heaven),12:1-17 (Woman clothed with the sun)



Mary clearly spells out her role in eternity:


My soul magnifies the Lord,

And my spirit has rejoiced in God my Savior.

For He has regarded the lowly state of his maidservant;

For behold, henceforth all generations will call me blessed. (Lk 1:46-49)


Mary is foreshadowed in the Old Testament


Mary is the Ark of the New Covenant



The Ark carried the Word of God made stone (10 Commandments). Mary carried the Word of God made flesh when she was pregnant with him. (Jn 1:1, c.f. Ez 11:19) The Ark was not the Word of God, but it was still very important because of it's role in relation to the Word of God, same with Mary. The Ark of the Covenant disappeared in 1 Sam 4:11 but returned (1 Sam 6:4). It disappeared again, during the Babylonian conquest (600 B.C.) never to be seen again to this day (Jer 3:16). They are still looking all over Israel for it. As We, we don't think they will find it, because the Ark of the New Covenant is now in Heaven (Rev 11:19). It is presented as Mary, the mother of Jesus.



There I have set the ark in which is the [old] covenant of the Lord that he made with his people Israel (2 Ch 6:11)

Elizabeth's spouse, Zachariah says "He has remembered his holy covenant" (Lk 1:72) "the new covenant in my blood" (Lk 22:20)

The Word was written by God on Tablets of  Stone (Ex 25:10) placed inside the Ark (Deut 10:1) 

The Word of God became Flesh (John 1) conceived inside Mary (Lk 2:38)

Mary carried the Word of God.

[The New Covenant] will not be like the covenant that... they broke though I was their husband (Jer 31:31)

The Holy Spirit (God) is Mary's spouse (Lk 1:35) 

"Who am I that the Ark of my Lord should come to me?"  (2 Sam 6:9) "Who am I that the mother of my Lord should come to me" (Lk 1:43) 

When the Ark carrying the Word of God returned "David was leaping and dancing before the Lord" (2 Sam 6:14) When Mary came into Elizabeth's presence carrying the word of God, the baby leaped for joy in Elizabeth's womb (Lk 2 38)

The Ark carrying the Word of God is brought to the house of Obed-Edom for 3 months, where it was a blessing. (2 Sam 6:11) Mary (the new Ark) carrying the Word of God goes to Elizabeth's house for 3 months, where she is a blessing (Lk 1:56)

The Ark is captured (1 Sam 4:11) and brought to a foreign land and later returns (1 Sam 6:13) Mary (the new Ark) is exiled to a foreign land (Egypt) and later returns (Mat 2:14) 

The Ark of the Old Covenant disappears  (Jer 3:16) never to return  The Ark of the New Covenant appears as Mary (Rev 11:19)

The Ark was in God's Temple on earth (Ex. 30:26)

Mary, the Ark of the New Covenant is in God's temple in Heaven (Rev 11:19)

Joshua summoned the twelve men carrying 12 stones representing the tribes of Israel. "Pass on before the ark of the Lord your God." (Josh 4:3-5)  The Ark of the New Covenant, Mary with a crown of twelve stars representing the tribes of Israel. (Rev 12 :1, 11:19)

The Israelites circle Jericho with the Ark of the Covenant and blowing horns for seven days before their victory. (Joshua 6)  The angels blow seven trumpets to herald the victory over Satan, (Rev. 8-11) before the introduction Mary, the Ark of the New Covenant (Rev. 12) which preceeds the final battle in Heaven.



Here is a popup of Revelation 11:19-12:6 which makes clear several points:


1.The Ark of the Covenant has been restored to the temple

2.The temple is now heaven (See also Heb 9:1-12)

3.A woman with a crown is there - the new Ark

4.She gave birth to the son who will rule the nations and is at God's throne, who is Jesus.

5.If the woman gave birth to Jesus then she is Mary

6.The devil is trying to destroy her but she is safe

7.The devil is making war on her children, who are all faithful Christians.

If Jesus is the Word made flesh, then we could consider Mary the Ark made flesh.


There is much Biblical evidence that Mary is the the Ark of the New Covenant. This was upheld by many Church Fathers of the early centuries, such as St. Athanasius and St. Epiphanius. Here's a chart of comparing Bible passages about Mary, the Ark of the New Covenant, and the Ark of the Old Covenant.


There is an important link between Mary in the New Testament and Eve in Genesis. (Gen 3:3-24) We believe Mary's "Yes" to God and his plan of redemption, reversed Eve's "No" and reversed Eve's refusal to obey and cooperate with God. Mary's "Yes" and cooperation with Grace blew away Eve's "No" and fall from Grace. (Lk 1:2) We think it is not by accident that Eve (the woman) came out of the body of Adam (the man), and that Jesus (the man/God) came out of the body of Mary (the woman). This view was put forth by St. Justin who lived from about 110 to 165 A.D. and is consistent with Paul's comparison of Jesus to Adam. (1 Col 15:22, 45). Eve wanted to be all knowing, and ate from the "tree of knowledge". Mary did not need to know the entire plan and at times didn't understand what her son was doing (Mk 3:20). A chart of side-by-side Scripture references at the end of this article helps compare Mary to Eve.


Mary was a true servant. She went to Elizabeth's place to do menial chores and housework for 3 months while Elizabeth's pregnancy with John was advancing (Lk 1:56). That was the custom of the day, to do chores for a relative who was coming to term with her pregnancy. I can imagine Mary washing Elizabeth's toilet area, cleaning the floor, and making meals while she knew she was carrying Jesus, the Saviour of the world, in her womb. What humility, what a servant! (Lk 1:39). We think she still is a humble servant who serves Jesus tirelessly.



 Mary is the "Mother of God"

Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist, says "Who am I that the mother of my Lord should come to me?"  (Lk 1:43) This passage gives us a title for Mary. She is "mother of my Lord." After Jesus was born the Bible says:


"And going into the house they [the Magi] saw the child with Mary his mother, and they fell down and worshiped him" (Mt 2:11 my emphasis).


The Bible calls her by her name, "Mary," and by her title "mother" while the passage calls Jesus by the title "child," which puts him in relation to her at the very moment the Magi worshipped him. They weren't kneeling because He was a baby, but because He was God. Jesus didn't become divine some time later in life. I think the Bible was trying to teach us who Mary is in relation to Jesus (God). She is his Mother even when he is being worshipped as God, making here "Mother of God."


Mary is mother of the incarnate God, who is fully God. He was always God, and Mary gave birth to him as such. Today,  She is as much with Jesus today as she was on that day when she held him and the Magi kneeled in her presence to worship of him. When we kneel in the presence of Mary it is because she is with her Son, Jesus. I saw a cool bumper sticker that said:


"Wise men still find Jesus with his mother."


The official title "Mother of God" was instituted as a response to a heresy of Nestorious which was an attack on Christ's divinity. The heresy tried to present Jesus as pure spirit who only took on humanity as a convenience, like a coat, thereby separating his human and divine nature. The Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) said that the relationship between the divine and human in Christ was so closely united that the Virgin Mary was actually Theotokos (Mother of God). Far from distracting from the divinity of Jesus, the title "Mother of God" actually affirmed the identity of Jesus as truly God/Man. His divine and human natures were inseparable. After the council, Christians of the time celebrated in the streets when this was reaffirmed.



We must remember that Mary was a mother. She was on a pilgrimage of faith (Lk 2:19, 51). She was not "all knowing." She was not like "Eve" in the garden who ate from the tree to gain all knowledge. She did not always understand how her Son would accomplish his mission of Salvation. She wanted her Son to succeed in his ministry and she wanted to take him away from the people to feed him so he would be healthy and not starve. My mother said I was crazy when I wasn't eating, I bet yours would too!  Mothers are weird that way. They always worry about whether their kids are eating enough - even after their kids are grown up! This passage does not undermine her specialness, it emphasizes her motherhood. In Mark 3:34, I think Jesus was saying something like:



No one in the history has been more obedient to God than Mary. As a 15 year old girl she faithfully said "Here I am Lord, the servant of the Lord, let it be with me according to your will" (Lk 1:38) not knowing how she would ever be believed and how she would escape the Jewish law of stoning an adulteress. She was engaged to Joseph, the love of her life. Yet she risked losing him, and almost did, in order to say "yes" to having Jesus. (Mat 1:19) She was carrying the Saviour, so if she would have been stoned to death Jesus would have died too. Then she would not get eternal life and neither would any of us. Her "yes" was BIG. Mary put Jesus ahead of Joseph and even her own life. This was before Jesus was even conceived in the flesh. How much more would she put Jesus ahead of herself now that He has risen.



In Revelation the woman is both Mary and the Church.


“If the male child is Jesus, then the woman is Mary. This interpretation was upheld by the most sober-minded of the Church Fathers, St. Athanasius, St. Epiphanius, and many others. Yet ‘the woman’ also stands for more. She is ‘daughter Zion,’ which brought forth Israel’s Messiah. She is also the Church, besieged by Satan, yet preserved in safety.” (Scott Hahn, The Lamb’s Supper: The Mass as Heaven on Earth, p. 78)


Chart comparing Mary to Eve

The Fall

The Redemption 

The LORD God said, "It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him." (Gen. 2:18) "I am the Lord's servant," Mary answered. (Luke 1:38)



The man said, "This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. She shall be called 'Woman', because she was taken out of Man...(Gen. 2:23) And Jesus said to her, "Woman, what does that have to do with us? My hour has not yet come." (John 2:4)


"woman" is an odd title for his Mother, and unusual for the day, WE think there was a reason Jesus used that word

Then the LORD God made a woman from the rib he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man. (Gen. 2:22)


Eve came out of Adam

 But when the time had fully come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under law, to redeem those under law, that we might receive the full rights of sons. (Galatians 4:4-5)


Jesus,the new Adam (1 Cor 15:22) came out of Mary (the new Eve)


Now the serpent was more crafty than any of the wild animals the LORD God had made. He said to the woman, "Did God really say, 'You must not eat from any tree in the garden'?" (Gen.3:1) his mother said to the servants, "Whatever He says to you, do it." (John 2:5)

on one level she is amending the disobedience of Eve


Then the LORD God said to the woman, "What is this you have done?" The woman said, "The serpent deceived me, and I ate." (Gen. 3:13) And Mary said, "Behold, the bondslave of the Lord; may it be done to me according to your word." And the angel departed from her. (Luke 1:38)


Mary's obedience vs. Eve's disobedience

Adam named his wife Eve, because she would become the mother of all the living. (Gen. 3:20) When Jesus then saw his mother, and the disciple whom He loved standing nearby, He said to his mother, "Woman, behold, your son!" Then He said to the disciple, "Behold, your mother!" (John 19:26-27) We believe at that moment Mary was given as mother to all Christians. (As per Rev 12:17, explained below)


This chart adapted from my friend John Pacheco www.Catholic-Legate.com


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