SEMANTICS IN BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION
JAMES L. BOYER
Professor of Greek, Grace College
In dealing with a subject which includes the word “semantic" there is a double
reason for beginning with the defining of terms; because semantic itself needs defining,
and because semantics has to do with the meaning of words, or definition.
The word "semantic" is used in two senses; (1) as a technical term in the science
of linguistics, and (2) a more general sense of linguistic and grammatical studies into the
meaning of words. The latter is the sense to be used in this paper.
My topic deals with the components of the sentence, that is, words and word
relationships. Its goal is to discover the meanings of these words as they contribute to the
meaning of the whole sentence. For example, in order to properly interpret the meaning
of a sentence such as, "The Church is the Body of Christ," we must understand the
meaning of each of its components. What does the word "Church" mean? and similarly,
"body," "Christ," the copula "is," the genitive relationship "of"? These are the materials
The semantic problem, in turn, may be considered as comprised of two parts; (1)
the meaning of the words in themselves, the lexical study of words, and (2) the meaning
of words in their grammatical relationships, the syntactical study of words. Perhaps the
first of these might by some be considered the specific field of semantics, but the second
seems to be equally involved in the meaning of words.
LEXICAL STUDY OF WORDS
By this I am dealing with the study of the meaning of a word as it might stand
alone, apart from any context. What meaning is born to our understanding by the word
itself? Such study naturally takes two directions.
First, let us define what we mean by Etymology. The dictionary says it is "that
branch of philology which treats of the derivation of words." It usually is thought of as
the ascertaining of the original meaning, or the meaning of the primitive basic root from
which a word is derived, in the parental language. Basically it is an historical pursuit;
practically it is a very complex, technical scientific investigation of comparative
philology, one which is safe only in the hands of experts.
Often, however, the term is used in a less precise sense to include various kinds of
"appeals to the original." In this broader use it includes the study of compound words,
word formation, and appeals by expositors to the meaning of the Greek word, or the
Hebrew original. For example, the word "synagogue" might be explained as "derived
from the Greek, from the two words, together, plus to gather, therefore a gathering
together of people. In the strict sense this is not etymology, or at least only a very
elementary part of it.
We may illustrate the etymological approach to the study of words by two
examples. The Greek word “church” in the New Testament is ekklesia. This word is
formed of two parts, the preposition ek meaning "out of” and the root connected with the
verb kaleo, “to call." Therefore, the etymology of the word suggests "a called-out
assembly." From this point on the process
26 GRACE JOURNAL
of rationalization and imagination may go as far as the interpreter's sense of good
judgment will let him. It is a select group, called out from among the rest of the world.
Therefore also it is a separatist group. It is composed of those who are called, so it is
involved in the doctrine of election. Since the calling involved a caller, and an actual call
issued, therefore the church is an official constituted body rather than a heterogenous
mass of separatists. Perhaps you can go on further.
The Bible word "atonement" most frequently is the translation of the Hebrew
word kapar which means “to cover." Atonement, then, is the “covering" of sin. This
covering, however, must be understood in the light of the whole Old Testament concept
of God and of sin, and points primarily toward the removal of the defilement and guilt of
sin from the sinner rather than the placating of an angry God, the idea which seems
primary in the Greek words later used. Also, this meaning of the word is very useful in
the explanation of the symbolism of the Old Testamental system and in the Christian
explanation of the significance of the cross of Christ.
It seems obvious that there are dangers in this type of word-study, so let me
suggest next warnings against its wrong use.
First, there is the danger of settling on a mistaken or false etymology. In the hands
of one except a trained specialist there is a natural tendency to look for similarities of
sound meaning to identify derivations. Thus "God" and "good" are often thought to be
etymologically related, also "sorrow" and "sorry," "bless" and "bliss." Of a similar fallacy
is the supposition that the English word "call" and the Greek word kaleo, even the
Hebrew qol, because of similarity of sound and sense, are derived from the same basic
root. Another example is the explanation of the word "deacon" (Gr. diakonos as coming
from dia, "through," and konos, "dust," "to raise a dust by passing through," or "to serve
energetically." Actually all of these supposed etymologies have been proven false by
scientific etymological studies, except perhaps the last one, and the experts will not even
guess at its true derivation.
I have suggested earlier that discovering the etymology of a word is a complex,
technical process to be undertaken only by experts let me explain this further by reference
to one of the basic principles of that science, namely, Grimm's law.1 By study of actual
words in a situation the processes of change can be traced step by step in comparative
literature it has been shown that certain sounds in one language are regularly changed to
certain other sounds when the root into another group of languages, and to still another
sound when it passes into a third group languages, and that these changes are consistent.
For example, a root which occurs in Greek beginning with a voiced stop, b, d, g, will
appear in English words as beginning with p, t, k Thus, bursa, purse, duo, two, genos,
kin, ginosko, know. Also, words in Greek beginning with a voiceless stop, p, t, k, will
appear in English as f, th, and h. Thus, pater, father, pous, foot, pur, fire, treis, three,
kardia, heart, kuon, hound. Words beginning with the aspirated stops ph, th, ch are
represented in English by b, d, g, thus phero, bear, phater, brother, thura, door, chortos,
garden. This process becomes exceedingly complicated, as can be imagined. Voltaire was
speaking more truly than he knew when he defined etymology as "a science in which
vowels signify nothing at all, and consonants very little."2 At least it should warn us
guessing at etymologies on the basis of external similarities.
A second warning concerning the use of etymology is the obvious fact that words
change their meanings and often lose any distinguishable connection in meaning with the
roots from which they
SEMANTICS IN BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION 27
were derived. We who use the King James Version do not need to belabor this point, I am
sure, but perhaps a few illustrations outside the Scripture language might be helpful. The
man today who uses the word "sincere" probably is hardly aware of the etymological
source of the word, as coming from the Latin sine "without," plus cera, "wax,” or of its
original meaning as an object that has not been doctored up to look pretty by using wax
to cover imperfections. Especially would it be questionable exegesis to explain the
"sincere milk of the word" as milk from glass bottles rather than waxed paper cartons.
Our word "book" comes from a German word meaning "beech-tree." Therefore a wooden
tablet, but we normally do not conjure up mental pictures of wooden tablets when we go
to the library. The word "musket" had its derivation from a kind of hawk used in hunting
when, after the invention of firearms, men decided to name their various types of guns
after the hawks previously used in hunting. However, we do still use the expression, "let
fly at.” Our word "silly" will probably be no better understood if we are aware that it
came from an Anglo-Saxon root meaning “to bless.” We use the English word "court' in
three senses, (1) a royal court, (2) a law court, and (3) to court, or woo the affection of a
fair lady. Will the meaning of any of these be better understood if we are told that the
word is derived from a Latin word cohors, or cors which meant an enclosure, a pen, or a
cattleyard? Similarly we might deal with these words: oxygen, provide, dilapidated, nice,
palace, presbyterian. Even the word "etymology" illustrates this change of meaning, for
etumos in Greek means "true," therefore the study of the true meaning of a word. Yet it is
invariably used for the study of the origin, the derivation, the original meaning, a sense
which the Greek word never had.
A third warning with regard to the use of etymology must deal with the danger of
its misuse and misapplication. An uncritical over-zealousness for a homiletical
application, or a more serious misconception of the nature of language may lead to
humorous and sometimes serious errors. A pastor-friend once argued that the apostle Paul
had never been married, because the Greek word used to describe his state in I Cor. 7:8
was agamos from a-privative, meaning "not," plus gamos, “married,” therefore "not
married, un-married." He forgot to read verse 11 where Paul tells those married folks
whose partners had left them, "Let them remain un-married, agamos." And I am
sure we all are familiar with the completely unjustifiable practice of transliterating the
original into a cognate English form to clarify the meaning, as "The Lord loveth a
hilarious giver." True, the Greek word used here is hilaros, but there is absolutely no
evidence that hilaros ever meant “hilarious.” As a matter of fact, the idea of boisterous
mirth contained in the English word is certainly a cheapening of the very clear and
correct and meaningful translation "cheerful” of our English version.
More serious is the harm sometimes done when one overemphasizes the meaning
of the root (which may not even exist) by assuming that the root meaning is dominant in
all the derived form, thereby neglecting the particular semantic values of the separate
words. Norman H. Snaith, in the Interpreter’s Bible, says:
While it must be recognized that words can change their meaning in strange and
unexpected ways through the centuries, yet in all languages there is a fundamental
motif in a word which tends to endure, whatever other changes the years may
bring. This fundamental "theme” of a word is often curiously determinative of
For illustration he uses the first word in the first psalm, ‘ashre, "blessed,” pointing out
that it is related by root to words meaning “foot-step,” “go straight ahead,” "advance,"
and also the
28 GRACE JOURNAL
Hebrew relative pronoun. Then he draws this conclusion:
All this shows how apt is the use of the first word. This Psalm tells of the true
way as distinct from the false. The happy man is the man who goes straight ahead,
because, as the last verse says: “The Lord knoweth the way of the righteous, while
the way of wicked shall perish."
James Barr, in Semantics Biblical Language4 criticizes this "root-fallacy," as he calls it,
saying that there is no evidence that such an association could have been present to the
mind of the writer. He goes on to another illustration. The word for "worship" ‘abadah
and the word for “servant,” ‘ebed, are from the same root. Once commentator makes
application as follows:
Latreuein which came in later theology to be the normal technical word for
worship, means to serve, with the service of a hired labourer or slave.
Significantly there lies behind it the Hebrew word ‘abodah, which is the same root
as the noun ‘ebed: the Suffering Servant of the Lord, whose part Jesus assumed, is
called in Hebrew the 'ebed Yahweh. The obedience of the Son of God, as the
Suffering Servant of the Lord, is thus precisely the offering of latreuein, or
Precisely nothing of value is contributed by the fact that the word for worship and
that for slave are from the same root in Hebrew. Though the Suffering Servant no
doubt worshipped God, he was not so named because of this; his name does not
mean ‘worshipper’ but ‘servant’, just as ‘the servants of David’ were not
worshippers of that monarch but his officials and slaves. The connection made in
the passage is a quite general association based neither on a semantic relation of
the words, nor on any passage where conscious association takes place, nor on
historical derivation of one word from the other, but purely on the possession of a
Having called attention to some of the dangers of etymologizing, let us now
attempt to evaluate its usefulness.
First, when properly handled and supported by known usage, etymology can
furnish valuable illustrative material. For examples, a steward is the manager of a
household, a trustee responsible for the handling of another’s goods. A bishop is an over-
seer, one with the oversight of the church entrusted to him. The word "Gehenna" as a
name for hell gains some illustrative value from its, association with the valley of
Hinnom where the fires of the city dump never went out.
Second, etymology may sometimes give a clue to a special shade of meaning, not
otherwise noticed. I offer an example of my own. While studying Rom. 12, I read verse
9, "Abhor that which is evil,” and became interested in the word translated "abhor,"
apostuqeo. The lexicon offered an additional meaning, "hate,” but there is another word
meaning "hate," miseo, much more common. What was the difference? I traced the word
stugeo through various related forms, all with the general meaning "abhor, hate, loathe,
abominate." Then I discovered the word styx, the name of the river that separated the land
of the living from hades, the river of death. The idea dawned
SEMANTICS IN BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION 29
on me that stugeo, means “to abhor, hate, shrink back from," like men dread the river of
death. "Abhor that which is evil, like men shrink back from death." This passage is richer
to me now as a result of an etymological study.
A third beneficial result of etymological study has been the help it has given in
discovering the meaning of rare and obscure words. Particularly has this been true in
Hebrew, because of the relative meagerness of the literature and the resulting large
number of words which occur only once, or so few times that inductive study of usage is
not possible. If we can study a word in enough different contexts the sense of these
contexts will help to make clear the meaning. But if we see it only in one context it is
extremely precarious to fix upon its meaning with any certainty. Here comparative
etymology can help by suggesting root meanings and meanings of related words. This,
used along with the study of the context, is often the only source of information there is.
So, even though we recognize the dangers of such a method, when it is our only means
we are grateful for it. Actually this method has been extremely fruitful in Old Testament
The second, and the more important, general approach to the study of the meaning
of words, is usage. Everyone seems to agree in principle that usage determines the
meaning of words. Thus, Rollin T. Chafer, in his Science of Bible Hermeneutics, lists
eight axioms, the third being, “Usage determines the meaning of words."5 In Terry's
Biblical Hermeneutics there is a quote from a Whitney:6
Language has, in fact, no existence save in the minds and mouths of those who
use it; it is made up of separate articulated signs of thought.. .and has its value and
currency only by the agreement of speakers and hearers. It is in their power,
subject to their will.
So the ultimate goal of word study must always be the meaning intended by the speaker
and understood by the hearer, the meaning as actually used.
Sources for the study of usage. There is actually only one ultimate source for the
study of usage in any language: that is the body of literature available in that language.
To know how the Greeks used the word pistis or ginosko or any other word it is
necessary to read and study all the places where such words occur. Practically, of course,
this is not possible, at least not in a language like Greek. But it must be recognized that,
other things being equal, the broader one’s knowledge of the literature the better qualified
he is to be an interpreter of it.
Since we cannot inductively examine every usage we must be content then to
depend on secondary sources, which may be called our tools for the study of usage.
These are primarily two.
First, and most immediately useful, is the lexicon, or dictionary. Actually, the
lexicon is a concentrated gathering together of the results of many experts who are
qualified and have had the opportunity to do the study of literature which we cannot do.
It brings together and classifies the usages of words as actually found in the literature,
making it available to all in usable form. Dictionaries vary greatly in their size, scope
and format, and it seems an absolute essential that a serious interpreter of the Scriptures
have at hand the best lexicons available, and understand how to use them.
30 GRACE JOURNAL
Perhaps the second most important tool for the study of usage is a good
concordance, preferably in the original language. While we cannot hope to study every
occurrence of a word in the whole language, we can at least do so with the body of
literature which makes up our Bible. It is well enough to depend on the labors of others
by using a dictionary, but no definition in a dictionary will give the insight into the usage
of a word like a personal study of every passage in the Bible where that word occurs.
Principles for the study of usage. I submit next a few suggestions to guide in the
study of the usage of words.
(1) List and study every place where the word occurs in Scripture and outside, to
the widest extent possible with your facilities.
(2) Try to find a common denominator which will link all the various occurrences
around a general thought concept. This will be the general frame of reference for that
word. Here the etymological study may be of help, for the word might not have changed
its basic meaning. At least it will suggest a place to start. Be ready, however, to ignore
the derivation if it doesn't fit naturally into the actual usage. Also, it must be recognized
that there may not be any one common denominator. The usage may demand several
general thought concepts. This is not at all strange, as a look at English will readily show.
The word 'top', for example, in different contexts, is a verb, an adjective, and a noun, with
several completely distinct general thought concepts (compare a house-top with a
spinning top). The word "board" needs at least four frames of reference: (1) a piece of
wood, (2) a panel of directors, (3) to provide food, and (4) to get on a ship.
(3) Apply this general word reference to the context of the passage in question,
allowing the nature of the subject and any qualifying ideas to sharpen and narrow the
general reference to a specific meaning for this place.
(4) Look for side indications which may help to delimit its meaning. For example,
the author may have included in the context his own definition or explanation of his
meaning. Thus, in 2 Tim. 3:17 Paul explains his use of the word artios, "perfect", by
adding, "completely equipped unto every good work.” And in Heb. 5:15 the teleioi
"perfect" are described as those who by use have their senses exercised to discern good
and evil. The use of contrasts, antitheses or opposition may give a clue to the meaning.
So "grace" in Eph. 2:8 is clarified by the added phrase, “not of works." Often the
parallelism of Hebrew poetry will suggest the specific idea conveyed by a word, likewise
the study of parallel passages in the Gospels.
(5) Give attention to the study of synonyms. The multiplying of words which have
nearly the same general meaning, but each with its own particular shade or nuance to
contribute to the general thought pattern, greatly enrich a language, and make it capable
of expressing thought more precisely. Both Greek and English are rich in this respect and
we should expect therefore to be able to interpret very precisely. Unfortunately, little
work has been done in this field recently, and in my judgment this represents one of the
most needed areas of study today.
(6) Keep in mind that part of the background of words in the Christian Scriptures
is the historical and theological content of the Scriptures themselves. Look for the usage
in the language of the day; for example, the way the koine Greek used the word. But also
remember that the Old Testament Scripture with its Semitic background must have had
its influence on the usage of the
SEMANTICS IN BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION 31
New Testament writers who lived in that background. Also the Christian faith necessarily
must have had some effect on words, both in adding new meaning and in changing the
meaning of words.7 All these factors must be taken into account in studying the usage.
GRAMMATICAL STUDY OF WORDS
The second part of this subject of semantics deals with the contribution which
grammatical or syntactical relationships make to the meaning of words. These
relationships include such factors as gender, case, tense, voice, mood, state, order of
words, modifiers, etc. In an illustration given just above we saw how the word "spinning"
affected the meaning of the word "top." So in Greek, it is impossible to talk about the
meaning of the verb balein without dealing with its tense stem, for the punctiliar nature of
the aorist stem is a part of the meaning of that word. How this same principle applies to
Hebrew may be seen in this comment by Barr:
I would think it safer, for example, to take the formation of the hiphil in a Hebrew
verb as a new formation semantically rather than as a variation within a paradigm.
This means that it may have its own semantic history and hence its semantic value
has to be determined for itself and not by a process of schematic reasoning from
Of course, it is not my purpose to re-teach Hebrew and Greek grammar at this
point, or even to attempt to illustrate the importance and significance of this aspect of
word study. Perhaps it will be sufficient to pick out a few of the places where
grammatical study has been weak. I shall use Greek only.
The Use of the Article
At first it seems very convenient to the beginning Greek student that Greek has a
definite article just like English has, and uses it in much the same way. But unfortunately
many never get beyond the elements, and never discover that there are very important
differences as well. So very commonly we hear men arguing, “The Greek has the article;
therefore it should be translated 'the faith' 'the Christ.’" But who would want to insist on
"the Jesus"? Or, “There is no article in the Greek, therefore it should be translated a life,
a son." In John 1:1 we read, "and the Word was God." "God" does not have the definite
article. So Jehovah's Witnesses read it "a god," and Christ something far less than God
Himself. And many students with only slight exposure to Greek do not know how to
answer them. Actually, the Greek expression as it stands without the article is the
strongest possible way that John could insist on the deity of Christ, for the absence of the
article characterizes and describes and emphasizes the nature of the noun. To insert
article here would make this passage teach the heresy of Sabellianism, that Christ and the
Father are identical. Similarly, the proper understanding of the article clears up the
difficulty. In Heb. 1:2 where the KJV has "his Son" (with "his" in italics) and the ASV
reads in the margin, “Gr. a son." Actually the meaning is "a person whose nature may be
described by the term "Son." It is merely naming God's new spokesman it is giving his
rank and pedigree, and the passage is stronger for that grammatical insight. "The faith" in
Greek may rightly be in one place insisted upon to mean "the body of truth which we call
the Christian faith." In another context it may mean "the faith which was mentioned in
the preceding verse." Both are valid uses of the article. The point to be made here is that
the study of the word theos in John 1:1 or huioi in Heb. 1:2 is not complete without a
study of the grammatical relations of these words, even to the significance of a word that
is not there.
32 GRACE JOURNAL
The Aorist Tense
Perhaps one of the commonest misconceptions in Greek grammar is in the
meaning of the aorist tense. The grammars call it the tense of punctiliar or point action
simple occurrence, as opposed to continuing or repeated action, with the idea of past time
added for the indicative mood. But often the simple occurrence is understood to mean
single occurrence, point action is taken to mean instantaneous action, and non-repetition
is construed to mean once-for-all never-to-be-repeated action. So we commonly hear the
aorist described as indicating once for all instantaneous action, never to be repeated.
How far this interpretation is from the truth may be seen by trying to impress this
meaning on the tense every time it occurs. Let me offer some examples.
John 2:20: "During forty and six years this temple was built in an instantaneous,
once for all, single act of construction, never to be repeated."
Mt. 23:2: "The scribes and Pharisees once and for all sat down on Moses' seat. All
things therefore whatsoever they say to you once and for all never to be repeated, you do
that instantly once for all never to be repeated, and then keep on doing it."
Mt. 27:8: "Therefore that field was once and for all called 'The field of blood,'
never to be repeated until this day.”
Nor are these examples unusual. They can be repeated on practically every page
of the New Testament. While I was preparing this paper I opened my Greek Testament at
random to Luke 4. Verse 13 might be read, "and the Devil having completed once and for
all every temptation, never to be repeated, he instantly went away from him once and for
all, never to come back, for a season." Skipping over dozens of illustrations I came to
verse 29, "And all who were in the synagogue were once and for all filled with wrath
when they heard these things once and for all and having risen up once and for all they
immediately in one single act of throwing, in one great big heave they threw him clear
out of the city, and they brought him once and for all unto the brow of the mountain
where their village was built, so as to cast him headlong once and for all. But he having
once and for all passed through their midst was going on.”
The fallacy behind this popular misunderstanding of the aorist tense is the failure
to distinguish between the event being described and the statement about that event. I
went to town --that a statement about a fact. It simply says, "I did it, it happened.” Of
course the event itself was a long series of events: a process that took half the day. But
when I said, "I went to town," I was not interested in calling attention to these details.
This is precisely the aorist tense in Greek, simple occurrence; a whole series perhaps of
details and processes, but all concentrated in the thought of the speaker into a point-
concept and the simple statement made, "it happened." Thus the aorist is the most
colorless, the least distinctive of all the tenses in Greek. It is the catch-all tense which was
used whenever there was no particular reason to emphasize duration or abiding result.
From the viewpoint of exegesis a safe rule, perhaps slightly exaggerated, might be: When
you come to a present, or imperfect or perfect tense, dig into it and squeeze out of it its
full significance. But when you come to an aorist tense, translate it as simply as possible
and forget it.
SEMANTICS IN BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION 33
Nineteen hundred years ago "Christ came into the world" (I Tim. 1:15). That is an aorist
statement, simple occurrence, it happened. But if I say it was an instantaneous once for
all coming never to be repeated, I am misrepresenting the fact, for his coming was
actually a long series of events involving many prolonged processes covering many years
of time, and it is going to happen again.
The Conditional Sentence.
A third illustration of a common grammatical fallacy is the treatment of
conditional sentences. Kenneth Wuest, in his works which are so commendable in so
many ways, occasionally falls into this error. In dealing with Rom. 6:5 (KJV, "for if we
have been planted together in the likeness of his death") he says, "The word ‘if’ in the
Greek is not the conditional particle of an unfulfilled condition. It is a fulfilled condition
here, its meaning being ‘in view of the fact.’9 What does he mean by a fulfilled
condition? I think the natural meaning would be that here the form of the Greek
expression makes it clear that there is really no ‘if’ involved at all. The Greek says "in
view of the fact that such and such is actually so." In John 10:35 he uses the word ‘since’
to translate this type of condition. Two verses later however, vs. 37, 38, the same type of
condition occurs twice. Here he translates "assuming that . . ."10 Why the change?
Obviously because his "in view of the fact," or "since" won't fit here. "In view of the fact
that I am not doing the works of my Father" cannot be what Jesus said, so he resorts to
"assuming that." But it is still a condition determined as fulfilled, exactly like the others.
Therefore, the fulfilled conditions of vs. 35 and of Rom. 6:5 do not mean what he made
them mean by his translation and comment.
Again the problem is a careless misapplication of the grammatical point. A
condition determined as fulfilled has nothing whatever to do with the truth or reality of
the supposition, only with the way the author is looking at it. For the sake of argument he
assumes it as fact and draws a conclusion from it. As in John 10:37 already used, Jesus
states two opposite assumptions and draws conclusions from them. He uses exactly the
same form of conditional sentence for both, knowing well that only one could possibly be
the actual truth. Thus to translate this simple condition ei with the indicative by "in view
of the fact' or "Since" is a very serious mistranslation.
In conclusion, the best preparation for proper Biblical exegesis, particularly in
matters of semantics, the meaning of words, including both lexical and grammatical
study, is the widest possible experience with and constant practice in the use of the
original languages. One dare not look up a word in the analytical lexicon, discover it is a
verb in the aorist tense, turn to the aorist tense section of Dana and Mantey, then say,
"The original Greek says so and so.”
1. For fuller treatment of this law, see Muller, Max, The Science of Languages (New
York: Scribner & Co., 1871), pages 274-298, and Metzger, Bruce M., Lexical Aid for
Students of New Testament Greek (Princeton, N.J.: 1935), pages 98-101.
2. Quoted in Muller, op. cit., p. 254.
3. Snaith, Norman H., "The language of the Old Testament." The Interpreter's Bible, I,
p. 224, 225.
4. Barr, James, The Semantics of Biblical Language (London: Oxford University Press,
1961), pp. 116, 103.
5. Chafer, Rollin T., The Science of Biblical Hermeneutics (Dallas, Texas: Bibliotheca
Sacra, n.d.), p. 28.
34 GRACE JOURNAL
6. Terry, Milton S., Biblical Hermeneutics (New York: Eaton & Mains, 1890), p. 73.
7. Metzger, Bruce M., "The Language of the New Testament.” The Interpreter's Bible,
8. Barr, op. cit., p. 102.
9. Wuest, Kenneth S., Treasures from the Greek New Testament (Grand Rapids:
Eerdmans, 1953), p. 89.
10. Wuest, Kenneth S., Expanded Translation of the Greek New Testament, Vol I:
The Gospels (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1960), p. 283.
This material is cited with gracious permission from:
Grace Theological Seminary
200 Seminary Dr.
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