Pages From Church History
Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)

                                Dr. W.A. Hanna

                 St. Mary & St. Abraam Coptic Orthodox Church
                   1843 Ross Ave.; St. Louis, MO 63146; USA


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                            St. Mary & St. Abraam
                           Coptic Orthodox Church;
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The translation below  reflects many of the cultural  norms and  traditions of
the Copts at the beginning of the second millennium  AD.  These traditions are
reflections of the Coptic society  at that pivotal time,  500 years after  the
Islamic conquest of  Egypt.  Many of  these  customs and traditions have  been
long-forgotten,  and    even  explicitly  denounced  by  the    Coptic Church.
Nevertheless,  the preservation and study  of such writings is very beneficial
in understanding this important stage of the Copts'  history, during which the
Egyptian population was on its way to becoming predominantly Moslem.

We invite you to read and enjoy this text, but we would  like to make it clear
that these writings are  not, and should not  be interpreted as representative
of the  cannons or laws of the  Coptic Church, and they do  not portray in any
way today's Egyptian  society in  general, or the  today's Coptic  society  in

Copt-Net Editorial Board
April 1996


Translator's Preface:
When  I was  growing up,  my mother, may  her soul  repose  in peace, gave  me
allowance  +.  The plus portion   was for books. After  I  moved to the USA in
1969, she kept me supplied with books, mostly  religion books. The Latest book
is  titled   "Magmuu   Al-Safawy Le-Ibn  Al-Assal"   (Translated:   The Safawy
Collection of the Writings of the Son of the Honey Maker)

Awlaad Al-Assal are three or four generations of a  wealthy Coptic Family that
lived in the 13th  Century, during the  rule of Ayoubite Family-descendants of
Salah  El-Deen Al-Ayouby.  They  did their  writings  during the times of Pope
Yoannis VI  (74 pope), Pope  Kyrillos  (Cyril) III  (Known as Ibn-Luqluque, 75
pope),  and Pope Athanasious  III (75 pope).   The  patriarch (father) of this
family is  Youhana Al-Katib  Al-Massry (John  the Egyptian Writer),   he begat
Girgis  (George), Girgis  begat Ibrahim,  Ibrahim  begat Ishak (Isaac).  Ishak
begat Assad and Amgaad. Al-Safawy Ibn Al-Assal must be the last in this family
to  write and edit,   this  book is  a  collection   of the  writings  of  his
family. They were all surnamed Ibn Al-Assal.

Awlaad Al-Assal were  either independently wealthy  (did not have to work)  or
highly connected, because of superior talents, to the ruling class (worked for
the government of their time  in high  positions).  They were lay  scientists,
writers,   philosophers.  They learned    Arabic very well   when  Copts  were
transitioning from the use  of Coptic to  the use of  Arabic by decree.   They
also  were  well versed in  Coptic, Greek,  and Aramaic   (some question their
knowledge of Aramaic).

They translated  a large body  of Church books into  Arabic including the Holy
Bible. They even had a  hand writing method for both  Arabic and Coptic  named
after them (Khaat Ibn Al-Assal).

The book I have is a Xerox copy of a 1908 reprint of  an 1886 edition of their
book "Magmuu Al-Safawy Le-Ibn Al-Assal." The  1886 edition was prepared by the
Hegomen Philothaous Awad.  The 1908 reprint was by  his son Girgis Philothaous
Awad.   This  book is  divided  into  51  Chapters, Covering:   Cannons (Laws)
attributed to the councils   of the Church: Jerusalem, Nicea,  Constantinpole,
Ephesus and others attributed to Orthodox fathers and local councils up to the
time of Pope Kyrillos III, Ibn Luqluque. It is extremely  valuable for any one
who wants to understand where Church Laws came from and how they evolved. They
also have a commentary about the authenticity of some Laws.

The topics in this book are wide varying laws  concerning: Church Building and
Contents, Church Books, Baptism,  Popes/Patriarchs, Bishops, Priests, Deacons,
Sub-deacons,  Priesthood  in general,   Monks,   Virgins, Celibates,   Laymen,
Liturgy,  Offerings,  Communion,    Prayer,  Fasting, Alms    (Giving), Church
Property,  The  First  Born, First Fruits,  Tithing,   Trusts, The Lords  Day,
Saturday, Feasts, Pilgrims, Martyrs, Confessors, Heretics, Concerning the Sick
and the  Departed,  Food,   Dress,  Home, Profession,    Engagement, Marriage,
Relatives Marriage Allowances and Limits, Widows, Widowed, Inheritance, Gifts,
Marriage after  the first Marriage, Marriage  to an un-believer, Divorce (Very
Strict) Laws,   Lending,   Borrowing,   Investing,   Keep   Sakes,   Election,
Recommendation, Joint Ownership,  Anger,  Rental,  Mortgage, Streets,  Drives,
Courts,   Joint Utilities,   Inheritance, Rulers,  Kings,  Courts,  Crimes and
Punishments, Stealing,  Drinking, Witch Craft, ....  etc. The  last Chapter is
dedicated to  the Canons of  Ibn Luqluque, since  he wrote  an unusually large
number of Laws.

Awlaad AL-Assal also translated the entire Bible into Arabic from its original
languages. Nobody seems  to have a copy of  that translation (it is  lost) but
some more recent   translations  reference it. Among  their   other  works are
writings on  natural languages, philosophy,   physical sciences, chemistry and

Give your Kids Allowance+. Encourage them to read.

William Hanna
St. Louis, Missouri

(C)1996; Dr. William A. Hanna; St. Mary & St. Abraam Coptic Orthodox Church
1843 Ross Ave., St. Louis, Missouri 63146; USA


Translator's Notes:

(1) Paragraph Numbering is  as  in the  Arabic Original.  To   the best of  my
ability, I  preserved the meaning.  Repetition  was customary  in old writings
for emphasize.  Also, repetition is caused by multiple  sources of same cannon

(2) Awlaad Al-Assal, four generations of a  wealthy Coptic family who lived in
the 13th century A.D (The reign of Ayoubite  family during the crusades). They
were writers, historians  scholars and religious men believed  to be the first
Copts to write in Arabic, since Coptic continued to be in use until the middle
of the  13th century A.D.   They are authors  of books in  Church laws, Church
history,  science, mathematics,  and astronomy.  They  are believed to be  the
first    to translate the Bible   from  Coptic to   Arabic. Their writings are
invaluable in  describing the transition from  all Coptic to partly Coptic and
partly  Arabic Church  communications.   The Church  does not   accept all the
statements in  the book being translated,  but the translation is for historic
record and information  we need to understand and  appreciate our  most highly
regarded Coptic (Egyptian) Orthodox Heritage.  I hope you benefit from reading
this humble work

(3) Many of the  laws and practices mentioned  in  the writings below are  not
applicable to our  society; the  translation  effort is to translate  what was
written without modification. The first publisher, Hegomen Philothaos Awad has
footnotes  concerning traditions/practices that   were no longer valid in  the
late 1800. Let alone 100 years after his time.


                                      Pages From Church History
                                      Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                                                  On Prayer

1.  Prayer is  Speaking to  God Al-Mighty by   Thanking  and Praising Him  and
Acknowledging His  Lordship and confessing to Him  our sins  and asking Him to
give us what is acceptable to Him.

2. First  condition for Prayer: Standing Up  because our Lord said:  "When you
stand up for prayer..." [Matthew 6] and as  David (the prophet and king) said:
"I stand in your presence and You see me..." [Psalm 5:3].

3.  Second  condition for Prayer:   Girdling  oneself because  our  Lord said:
"Girdle yourself..."

4. Third condition  for prayer: Turning   your face towards the East,  because
this is  the  direction Christ the Lord  said  He will   appear in His  second
coming.  Also because David  the prophet and  king said: "Praise  the Lord who
is above the heavens. His voice from the east like many waters... Also we have
to stop    looking around because  this is   the command of    the Lord to the

5. Forth  condition for prayer:  With the fingers,  make the sign of the cross
from  above down and  from left to  right. Making the sign of  the cross is to
cast  the devils away because Christ  said: "(if) by  the finger of God I cast
out the devils..." It is from above down because  He came down from heaven. It
is also from left to right  because He transferred us from  the left (evil) to
the  right (righteousness). Also,  we make the  sign of the  cross because the
cross  was the tool  by which Christ  completed our salvation. And remember as
you make the sign of the cross the grace given to  us by Him who was crucified
for us.

6. Our fathers the Apostles commanded us to make the  sign of the cross on our
foreheads with  a  pure heart   always to make  the devil   flee from us.  The
Apostles made this sign on us  to protect us  from the corruption of the devil
as the blood of the Pascal sacrifice was a sign on the homes of the Israelites
to protect them from death of their first born which rule on the Egyptians but
not the Israelites (who had the sign).

7. The time for  making the sign  of the cross  is at the beginning of prayers
and when the name of the cross is mentioned.

8. Fifth  condition  for prayer: Recite  the   words of  prayer with fear  and
trembling,   while the soul is moved   towards  the creator.  (Pray) either in
spirit (silently) or  by  the tongue (audibly) in  which  case let  the tongue
translate (express) what the conscious (spirit) feels.

9.  Sixth condition  for  prayer:  Kneel  and  prostrate  yourself in  prayer,
because the Lord commanded: "Kneel to the Lord  your God and  to Him only give
worship..." Also the Gospel reminds us that in the night  he was betrayed: "He
knelt down and prayed..."

10. Kneeling should be by the Spirit and in Truth.

11. The  time to kneel is when  the name  of the Lord  is mentioned  in prayer
(and service) and should be  either one time  or three consecutive times to be
repeated at the end of each prayer or the end of each Psalm or Praise.

12.  Some (believers)  make    it kneeling and   others  make  it  prostrating
themselves (leaning forward in awe  and reverence) according to their physical

13. But there   are times in which we   are commanded not   to kneel like  the
Pentecost  Season,  the feasts  of  the Lord   ("Ayaad  Saideiah")  and  after
receiving communion.

14. Prayer also requires raising the hands with opened palms especially during
the times of intercessions, supplications,   and requests as the Apostle  Paul
advised Timothy (I Timothy 3) Also as David the Prophet  and king said: "Raise
you hands in the evenings..." (Psalm 133).

15. Raising the  eyes up high as our  Lord to Whom  is Glory taught us when He
raised Lazarus from the dead. And also as David the prophet  and king said: "I
lifted my eyes up to you O Lord..." (Psalm 122)

16.  Beating  our  chests asking the  forgiveness  from  God for our  sins and
transgressions    and the years we wasted    without good fruits    as the tax
collector (publican) did when he beat on his chest saying: "forgive me Lord, I
am a sinner." his prayer was praised more (than that of the Pharisee).

17. Weeping for those who can (weep) they will be like  David (the prophet and
king), the prophets, the saints, and the fathers the saints.

18.  Prayer includes reciting what the Bible and Cannons  (Laws of the Church)
determined to be used in prayer which includes: The Lord's Prayer,

19. The Profession of faith (Nicene Creed),

20. Praying day and night the Psalms,  Praises, Glorifications, Confessing God
the Omnipotent, and confessing our sins.

21. In  the morning prayer  recite psalm 62 and in   the evening prayer recite
Psalm 142.

22.   The priests are to pray  the praise of  the three young men everyday and
close with praising the Lady (The Theotokos) everyday.

23.  On Mondays they sing Moses and Merriam his sister,  On Tuesday the second
praise, On Wednesday  they  use the  praise  of Hannah  the Mother of  Samuel,
Thursday the praise of  Habakkuk, On Fridays  the praise of Isiah, on Saturday
the praise of Jonah, and on Sunday the say all the praise mentioned before.

24. The  fathers of  the  Church prepared prayers  based   on these  and other
praises to be followed.

25. The prayers required of all believers are seven.

    (First) The Morning prayers are to be done after the  washing of hands and
            before getting involved in the other activities of the day  
    (Second) The Third (Hour) Prayer
    (Third) The Sixth (Hour) Prayer
    (Fourth) The Ninth (Hour) Prayer
    (Fifth) The Sunset (Evening) Prayer
    (Sixth) The Sleep (Compline) Prayer
    (Seventh) Midnight Prayer, after the washing of hands with water, if water
            is not available at this time one blows in  his hands and uses the
26.  If one is married, they  pray together. If  he/she is not a believer yet,
one prays alone.

27. Married people should not delay prayer, they  do not need to bathe, except
for the washing of hands because marriage is purified.

28.  Prayers are seven  because  David said: "Seven times   every day I praise

29. Morning Prayer is because God gave  us the light and  allowed the night to
pass   away. Third Hour   is commemorating the   judgment against  our Lord by
Pantius Pilate. In the Sixth (Hour)  He was crucified,  in the Ninth (Hour) He
surrendered the Soul, Night (Hours) to thank God for giving  us rest after the
labor of the  day,.  Let us  thank the  Lord in all  theses times  in which He
endured the betrayal, judgment, cross, death, and His  being brought down from
the cross in the evening. Midnight is because the bridegroom will  come in it.
Also, because David said: `I  get up in the middle  of the night to praise you
 ...' Also, at  midnight Paul and  Silas were praying  in the prison. Also our
Lord prayed at midnight  three time in the night  of his suffering and He said
be awake and pray  so you  will  not enter  into  temptation. He also  said be
alert because you do not know what time the son of man will come...

30. Let Morning and Evening Prayers be  conducted in the Church, especially on
Sundays and Saturdays. Those who are  late (not able  to attend) for sickness,
let them be. But the sick who are able to attend  will benefit healing through
the water and oil of the prayer. Those who do  not attend for good reason need
to be reminded by their acquaintances to attend every day.

31.  The third (Hour) can  be conducted at home.  If the believer can not pray
where he is, let him pray it in his heart.

32. The clergy are   charged with certain prayers which   are ordained in  the
Church: Baptism, Holy Communion, ordination  of priests and Churches  (meaning
the bishops are charged with this), marriage,  absolution, uncion of the sick,
and prayers for the dead when they depart and after.

33. The praying on oil and first fruit and every  prayer on everything and let
them  close the prayer with Glory  be to the father and  the  Son and the Holy
Spirit forever Amen.

34. But the prayer  of baptism and  bathing (for children) should be according
to what is in the Liturgy concerning such things.

35. Prayers which are not required (but done willingly) are the prayers of the
ascetics and monks because they pray  day and night as  in the sayings and the
teaching of the  lord and as the  Apostle said: `Pray always  without ceasing'

36. Early morning prayer should be performed  at the crow of  the cock. As the
Apostles said wake up early and profess to the Lord.

37. Pray also before and after receiving your food. Before  eating you pray so
the Lord  may bless the food. You  pray after so the  Lord may  keep your body
healthy to be able to perform your practical  worship always. When the priests
are present at the table, they can pray while everyone is  sitting down as the
Lord blessed the five loaves (while they were all sitting down).

38. The prayer for the travelers is  like when Paul prayed  when the people of
Ephesus sent him off. Also like the prayer when  Paul traveled from Ciseria to

39. There is  also a brief  prayer for the monks  when they enter or exist any

40. Prayer for distress is two kinds:
 (1) The person can  pray for his own situation  because the Apostle said: `If
any in difficulty, let him  pray' Paul, Jonah,  The Three Young Men all prayed
in their distress and were saved. Our Lord  taught us to do  that as he prayed
in the night of his suffering.
 (2)  The prayer  of  others for one  in  difficulty is  because the Apraksees
teaches  us about the  prayer of  the whole  Church for  Peter  when he was in
prison. Also, Paul said: `pray for me so I also may be saved'

41. The   prayer  for the forgiveness  of   sin as the  priests  pray  for the
congregation as Moses, Aaron, and Phenhaas did.

42.   Also prayers for needs   which are not  against  the law like asking for
having offspring and asking for wisdom. Hannah prayed to have an offspring and
was given  Samuel and we  know the prayer and  praise of Hannah (the mother of
Samuel). Also, as the Apostle said: `He who is lacking wisdom let him ask with
faith and without doubt, and the Lord will give him what he asks for...'  Also
as the  Lord said: `Everything you  ask  for in prayer   with faith, you shall
receive it.'

43. The prayer of spiritual fathers  for their children  is like the prayer of
Paul for Timothy and the command of Paul to timothy to conduct such prayers.

44. It is  not lawful to  conduct prayer with   an excommunicated priest  or a
non-believer  even if  it was in  a  home. Everyone  who participates in  such
prayer will be excommunicated.

45. Brothers, pray  always  for those who are   unlawfully angry so  they will
depart their anger.

46. If one favored, or even stranger comes in  (during the sermon), the bishop
shall not stop the service, but let the deacon take him in and find an honored
place for him so he can participate in a service acceptable to God.


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                                Prayer Fasting

1. Fasting is to abstain from eating for a specified period as the law
commands in obedience to Him who made the law. Fasting gives us the
opportunity to examine our sins and reap our good rewards.

2. The purpose of fasting is to weaken the power of desire in order for the
body to obey the spirit.

3. All Nazarene (Nassara meaning Christians) are required to fast the holy
forty days (lent) which is followed by Paschal Week fast ending in Friday of
Crucifixion (Good Friday). This fast is to be abstention to the end of the
day (sunset around 6 PM). One should neither eat meat of any kind, nor meat
by-products. Also all Christians are to fast on Wednesdays and Fridays of
every week except in the Pentecost season, and the feasts of Christmas and
Epiphany if any happens to be on either day. These two days are to be fast
until the ninth hour (3 PM).

4. There is other fasts in the Coptic Church ("Bayaa Keptiaa") includes
Hercules Week (The Week before lent), Nenevah 3-days fast, and the day before
Christmas ("paramoon al-milaad") and the day before Epiphany
("paramoon al-ghotaas").

5. Other fasts are in the rank of Wednesday and Friday fast like the fast
before Christmas which begins the second half of Hathor and ends on
Christmas; and the fast for the Apostles which starts after Pentecost and
ends on the 5th of Apeep, the feast of Peter and Paul.

6. These added fasts were practiced by our people with many of our
Patriarchs, and they are beyond what the Councils of the Church ordained, so
we have to keep them without reduction.

7. There is other fasts kept mostly by ascetics and virgins like the fast for
our Lady (The Theotokos) which begins on First of and the feast of  our Lady
is when it ends. (please note the big shift, the fast of St. Mary is now
observed by more people than any other fast including non-Christians in

8. The above group of fasts are to the ninth hour (3 PM) and one should
abstain from meat with the exception of fish (permitted to eat seafood in the
group in 5 .. 7).

9. If one can fast more than what is ordained, he will receive his reward.

10. No abstention on Sundays or Saturdays.

11. Fasting is giving of the needs of the body, as giving is a sacrifice of
the material wealth.

12. The commandment concerning fasting is to make the physical nature
(desire) under the control of the spiritual one. Also, through fasting we
control the power of the anger of the mind.

13. One of the benefits of fasting is to become like the Spiritual beings,
this allows us to connect with the spiritual.

14. Also, when we feel hunger, we become kind to those who hunger.

15. Also, by fasting we receive communion with a great desire both physically
and spiritually.

16. Fasting is worshipping through the physical nature ("Hayouaniah") as
prayer is worship through the intellect (mind).

17. Let the Forty Day fast be honored among you, and start it on Monday the
first day of lent, and end it on the Friday of the Completion of fast
("Khettam Al-Soom").

18. (About the Pascal week), we fast all six days including Friday for the
betrayal and Saturday for the Salvation (death and burial). We end the fast
on the seventh day (Sunday) at the Crow of the Cock. The Saturday of the
Pascal Week is the only Saturday we abstain. But all other Saturdays are
without abstaining because Saturday signifies the day on which the Lord
rested. But this Saturday and the early part of Sunday (resurrection) is
because the Lord was buried. (remember that according to Jewish tradition,
the day was counted evening to evening, for this he calls the hours on
Saturday of light after sunset Sunday).

19. During these 6 days (Pascal Week), you eat only bread and salt with
water. No meat or wine be consumed in these six days, because they are days
of sorrow. But for Friday and Saturday, those who can, fast them together as
one day. But if you can not fast the two days, be sure to fast the Saturday
because the bridegroom is taken, and when he is taken they fast weep. Fast
these days to the night as we did (meaning the Apostles) when He was taken
away from us.

20. (Confusing Arabic prose) meaning that after you fast fifty days (lent)
fast another week meaning Pascal week then no fasting for fifty days (meaning
Pentecost Season) including no fast on Wednesdays and Fridays during
Pentecost, with a reminder not to forget the Wednesdays and Fridays fast
Also a reminder to combine fasting with giving to the poor.

21. If Wednesday or Friday is a feast, you go for prayer (liturgical) and
communion and communion breaks the fast, so no abstaining.

22. If one was sick during the Pascal week and did not fast, let him fast for
a substitution week afterwards, but not during the Pentecost season.

23.  A priest (clergy) who does not fast the lent and Wednesday and Friday
should be excommunicated ("Youktaa") and the lay person who does likewise
should be separated ("Youasaal")

24. A priest (clergy) who celebrates the Paschal Week with the Jews should be
excommunicated ("Yoktaa") and if he fasts Saturday or Sunday, except for the
Great Saturday of the Paschal week should be excommunicated ("Yoktaa") also.

25. During the forty days (lent) they should not celebrate the martyrs on
week days, but to do those remembrance only on Saturdays and Sundays.
26. During the forty days (lent) there should be no wedding, no celebration,
and no sitting to drink (parties or social gatherings).

27. No priest (clergy) is to drink wine or bathe (these restrictions existed,
the meaning is to be involved more in spirituality) during the forty days

28. No one is to touch his wife (sexual relations) during fasting days.

29. If a day of fasting is the feast of a martyr and if a bishop or a priest
breaks the fast because of the feast, he shall be excommunicated ("Youktaa")
because he became a  stumbling block for many souls.

30. Also if the people break the fast for the feast of a martyr, let the
bishop or the priest separate them, because it is not proper to break the
fast when the martyrs died through hunger, thirst, or by burning in fire.

31. But on the day of Christmas and the day of Epiphany, the Council at Nicea
ordained that they break the fast at night.

32. During the forty days (lent) they fast until sunset, meaning the eleventh
hour (5 PM), but in Paschal week till the stars are bright (the dark of the
night) and no one is to put on makeup and women should not wear their jewelry
during these days. And no one is to touch (have sexual relation) with his
wife. Woe to them that do that particularly during the Paschal Week.

33. If we do our pleasure during the forty days (lent), how can we enjoy
seeing His resurrection.

34. Fasting is not the abstaining from food and water, but a fast acceptable
to God is a pure heart. If the body goes hungry, but the soul is occupied
with evil desire and the heart is defiled with high living, fasting benefits
you nothing.

35. Fasting the forty days (lent) is to be with humility and avoiding the
lusts of the body. It is unlawful to have weddings. And in Paschal week it is
unlawful to have baptism or funeral prayers. On Paschal Thursday, it is
unlawful to have ordination or baptism, but to stay in the Church ("Bayaa")
the whole week.

36. On Palm Sunday is when they do he funeral prayers, Psalm, Gospel reading,
and absolution (in advance) for the souls of those who depart during the
Paschal Week. On Thursday of Paschal week no kiss or prayer for the departed
("tarheem") or go in peace. They do them all on Saturday: Tarheem,
 absolution, and raising of incense. On (Easter) Sunday no funeral or


                                      Pages From Church History
                                      Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                                                  On Giving

1. Giving is a form of  mercy. It is  one's generosity with his wealth towards
those who are in need. It is not  for seeking a reward but  as an obedience to
God who  said: "Sell your posessions and  give alms, and gather for yourselves
treasures  in heaven that  does not rust  or fade away."  Also His saying: "If
thou wilt be perfect go sell all  you have and  give it to  the poor, and thou
shalt have treasure in heaven ..." (Matt 19:21).

2. By giving,  one becomes  like his creator   to the  level of his   ability,
because mercy  (giving)  and generosity  are  some of   the qualities of  God,
because the Lord said: "Be merciful, as your heavenly Father is merciful"

3.  Giving is   lending unto God.  It is   also a Godly business guranteed  to
produce  profit. It is  a deposit by  the  wise with his  God  until a time of
need. It is the offerings raised on the live (human) altars. Allah (God) says:
"I desire mercy, not sacrifice".

4. Giving makes fasting acceptable (to God) as the prophet (Isiah 85:7) said.

5. Giving makes prayer acceptable as it was said to Cornellious (Acts 10:1-8).

6. Without  it, celibacy will   benefit nothing as it was    said to the  five
foolish virgins.

7. The commandments and examples concerning  giving are very  many in the Holy
Books. As in  the Lord's saying: "If one  asks you, give  him" and His saying:
"Blessed are those  who have mercy, because they  shall  receive likewise" and
His saying to those who have mercy: "Come you blessed of my Father inherit the
kingdom prepared before the foundation of the world." (Matt 25:34)

8. Giving (Mercy) has to be considered  from different view points, because it
requires both rich and poor to give, each according to his ability.

9. The reward (of giving) is according to the  intention of the heart, and not
according to the amount large or small.

10.  As for the  rich; He said:  "he who has more, is  required to give more".
Also His saying: "he who loves more, is forgiven more". Also His saying: "give
and  it shall  be given unto   you, good  measure,   pressed down, and  shaken
together, and runing over, shall they place in your bossom.  For with the same
measure you give, tit shall be measured back to you again." (LK 6:38)

11.  Paul the Apostle  follows (the sayings  of Christ)  by  saying: "he which
swoeth sparingly shall reap sparingly, and he  which swoeth bountifully, shall
also reap bountifully." (II COR 9:6,7)

12. Also he said to (his disciple) Timothy: "Advice the rich  of this world to
not be buffed up and to trust not in uncertain riches, but  in the living God,
who gives us richly all  things to enjoy. .. Laying  up foundation against the
times to come that they may lay hold on eternal life" (I TIM 6:17-19)

13. As  for the poor,  God (Highly Is His Name)  said about the woman who gave
two pences  that she gave more than  all of those  who gave  alms on that day,
because she gave willingly, she gave everything she had, she  gave out of need
but the other gave out of excess. See LK 31:1 ...)

14. He also said: "Anyone who offers you a glass of cold water in the name of
Christ, Truly I say to you his reward is preserved in heaven" (Mark 9:40)
15. Also the Lord said on the tongue (mouth) of Isiah: "Divide your bread
between you and the hungry" (Is 58:7)

16. The Apostles told us in Descolia  (Cannons of the  Apostles): "Give to the
Lord from your money  which He gave  you, as you can afford,  and what you can
afford  put in the  offering plate even  a pence or  two or three or more. And
share your money, particularly, with the strangers."

17. But the bread which is  taken (given away  freely) from the widows is pure
alms, and even if it  was little (because  of their poverty) it is  acceptable
(to God).

18. Those who have nothing (to give), llet them fast (not  eat), and give have
the  price of the food Ithey  did  not eat) to  the  Saints (meaning Church or

19. Giving is two types: openly  and secretely. Secretly  to the poor, hungry,
naked, stranger, sick, prisoner, and those under  arrest (like war prisoners).
The secret giving is better  because He (Christ) said give  in secret and your
father who sees in secret will reward you openly (Matt 5:6). Also, His sayings
concerning those who are on His right hand (Matt 25:34-40).

20. Paul the Apostle said in Hebrews: "Don't foget the  love for strangers, by
which some hosted angels without knowing, and  also remeber those in chains as
if you are imprisoned with them. See Hebrews 13.

21. Openly, is what we  do when we come to  the priests (clergy) and offer our
tiths  (1/10th), First Fruits ("Bekoor"), and  promises ("Nezoor"). Becaue the
Apostles in   Descolia said: "tiths, first  friuits,   and promises  which the
believers bring into  the  Church shall   be  distributed to  the men  of  God
(servants) but those   which are specifically  brought for  the poor shall  be
distributed, as  good agents, to  the orphans, widows,  those in hardship, the
strangers, those in need knowing that you will give account  to the Lord about
these things. Do  not waste the  Lord's posessions, do  not eat it or waste it
away, but  guard for yourselves and for  those who are  in need, so you can be
straight in front of God."

22. Listen to what was  said early on, and let  us repeat it for your benefit:
"tiths , first fruits, and promises was made first to the High Priest, Christ,
and those who serve him."

23.  Also, tiths, first fruits,and promises  which you are  required to offer,
bring it to him (the  priest) and he  will distribute it to everyone according
to need  so no one will  receive  two portions in  one  day or one  week while
another receives none at all.

23. Also, your grain, the works of your hands, bring (to the priest) so he may
bless it for you, and  give him your   tiths, first fruits, and promises,  and
gifts which are  the first grain,  first fruit, first  wine, first oil,  first
wool, and the first of everything God give you, because he is  a priest of God
so your   offerings are acceptable  unto God  and   your insence  becomes good
("tayeeb") to the Lord  your God. And He (the  Lord) shall bless all the works
of your hands and increase the bread of the earth  because blessings will fall
upon those who give. [Number 23. is repeated twice?]

24.  Giving to some groups has priority  over giving to other groups, although
giving to all the needy is acceptable, as follows:

25. Highest priority  in giving is to the  (families of) the martyrs, then  to
the priests  (full   time clergy),  then  to the   (needy) relative  who   are
believers, then to the (needy) relatives  who are non-believers, then to needy
believers,  then to any  other in need even they  were non-believers. If there
was a  widow who is not in  need, let her not ask  for alms, but she should be
satisfied  with what she has. But,  if  there was  a  widow in need because of
physical handicap, or sickness, or   raising of children these deserve  giving

26. If one pays to support the poor, out of pure hearted motive, is considered
a perfect man.  That who support the martyrs (families) are even more so.

27. If a believer has widows (in his family),  it is his  duty to support them
with  his giving; otherwise   they become a   burden for the  Church, which is
served better if it supports the true widows (ones without any support).

28.  Concerning  priests,  those  with good  repute  ("Youhssenoun Al-Seerah")
deserve more honor, especially those who work hard  at teaching and preaching.
(out of place maybe!)

29. If a believer does not care for his relatives, especially the ones who are
believers, he is worse than the non-believers.

30. Now as long as we are in this world, lets do good to everyone, especially,
those who are in the faith (Gal 6:10).

31. The reason giving should not be done  discriminating between believers and
non-believers is because our Lord said: "Give those who ask you, and those who
ask  you, do not turn down,  .. and be like your  Father  who makes his sun to
rise on the evil and the good and sends his rain on the just and unjust" (Matt

32. Hurry to help the needy, even before they become Christians.

33. There are   times to encourage giving more   than other times,  but it  is
favored any time.

34.  The more liked   times for giving  are Sundays  and  Feast days.  This is
because  in the Old  Testament ("Torah") it was said,  on your feast do not to
come to see my face with empty hands, but bring as much as  you can afford, so
the Lord your God will bless it all for you (Exodus 23:16).

35.  Also (at certain times) as  the Apostle  said  exalting the Galatians for
collecting (for the saints in Jerusalem) so do you likewise. He said that they
collect (on Sundays) every time they congregated, so it will  be ready when he
(the Apostle) came to their town.  (Gal 6:10).

36. And giving is desired at all times because the Lord  said: "give those who
ask you" and the Apostle said: "As long as you have opportunity"

37. Also the Apostle said do not neglect to give as long as you have something
to give because the day of the Lord is becoming closer.

38.  Also, giving is  preferred to  those  mentioned above,  and  not for some
others because the Apostles said: if one  misuses his money,  or a drunker, or
lazy, is not deserving of your giving.

39. Also, giving is preferred for those who are in need, and those who receive
shall pray for the giver. Also, they  said: those who  are not in need are not
deserving of giving and  should not take,  because blessed is indeed those who
can  care for themselves,  so that they do not  take away from the real needy:
the orphans,  the strangers, and  the widows. And  it is  more blessed to give
than to receive.  And also, Woe to  those who take  when they are not in need,
the Lord will  judge them on  the day of  judgment. But if  one accepts giving
because of real need  like  aging, or  sickness,  or caring for  large family,
blessed  are  those, the Lord  will  honor  them,  because they cause offering
("Qurbaan") to be offered  to God, and  this offering will ask  (intercede) at
all times for the giver. But remember the saying of the Apostle: "Those who do
not desire to labor, do not eat"

40. Also, giving cleanses from sin and absolves from bad deeds, and saves from
evil, and is rewarded  many times over.  And those who  neglect to  give while
they are able to are like  non-believes and doers  of evil, for the Lord said:
"give mercy and everything will be clean for you" (LK 11:41)

41. Also the Apostles talked about giving (Descolia 19), and Daniel said: "For
this O"king  listen to  my  advice, absolve your  sins  with giving,  and your
transgressions  with mercy  to  the poor"   (Dan 4:27). David   the king said:
"Blessed are those who show mercy to the poor, the Lord will  save them in the
evil  day"  (Psalms 41:1). And Solomon  said:  "Who gives  silver to the poor,
shall receive many times  over. " Also, "he who  stops his ears  at the cry of
the poor, he also shall cry himself, but shall not be heard" (Proverbs 21:13)

42. One  who does  not  care for   his  relatives,  especially those  who  are
believers, committed sin and is worse than the non-believer.

43. The  Gospel testifies that the Lord,  on the day   of judgment, will scold
those on his left hand because they did not do good while  they could and will
say to them go away you evil doers to the fire  prepared for the devil and his

44. The parable of the rich man  shows that he  did not show mercy to Lazarus.
Also the parable of the five foolish virgins.

45. Who he  wants to be perfect, should  sell  all he  has and give  it to the
poor. This is not for everyone to do.

46. The first type are the ones who desire to be perfect.

47.  The second type is as  the Apostle said,  to live in  this world with the
least just to satisfy the needs, and the excess to help those in need?

48. Some of the rules  of giving is to be  not for future gain, with gladness,
without hatred or  sorrow, with love and without  pride. Do not  as the bishop
for an account of it and do not examine his stewardship of giving. Do not have
doubt but be sure that the Lord will reward you and him.

49. Our Lord said: "Do not do alms in front of other people,  so they see you,
otherwise you have  no wages (reward) from your  father in heaven. When you do
alms (give) do not sound a trumpet.  And do not do like  the hypocrites in the
synagogues and marketplaces,  so they can be praised  by  people, they already
received their wages (reward)." (Matt 6:1,2)

50. Do not feel sorry if you give your brother.

51. The Apostle said  , everyone according  to the  desire  of his  heart, not
through sorrow or by force,  because the Lord loves a  cheerful giver (II  COR

52. Also, (the Apostle said), "If I give everything I have, and have no love,
I benefit nothing" (I COR 13:3).

53. Do not cast away,  from the door  of your house, a poor  man. Do not scold
him, do not put him down, but make your utmost effort to console him and bring
him happiness, so the Lord gives you happiness. Let  him sit at your table and
from the same cup you drink, let him drink and do not show pride.

54. Do not ask account of  the bishop, and do not  ask him how he manages what
he distributes, or when, or  where because the Lord gave  him the authority to

55. If you gave, ask for  the forgiveness of  your sins, and  do not be double
hearted about it. And know who will reward you.

56. The Apostles commanded not to accept alms from evil doers.

57.  Also (Descolia 14) if we do not give alms, how can we care for widows and
raise orphans and care for the needy of your people. For this you here from us
that it should be that we give as was for the levites from the grain which the
people  give to you  (the clergy)   so  you will  be  sufficient  and  will be
sufficiency for all those  in need  without having to  accept giving  from the
evil doers. And if you all  do as such, and there  is still need, it is better
that one dies   from famine than  to accept  giving from the  enemies of  God,
because he that accepts such giving is  shamed and dispised among his friends,
for this (David)  the prophet said: The Oil  of the sinner  does  no anoint my

58. Be  of experience everyone, and accept  from those who follow the straight

59. If out of necessity you  accept silver (money)  from one you do not desire
(accept); i.e. one who is  unclean or non-believer; use it   for the price  of
fire wood; so  your  orphans and widows do  not  buy food  or drink with  this
money, because it is not  lawful. It is just that  the money of the ungodly be
used as food for the fire, and not as food for the saints.


                                      Pages From Church History
                                      Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                                      The Laws Concerning Laymen

1.  First, Christian  teachings  mentioned in  the  Gospels,  Epistles  of the
Apostles, are in the forty fifth Chapter.

2. Second,  What was mentioned in the  Cannons (of the Church)  which includes
the introduction  to  the Descolia,   Remember  you children   of God, to   do
everything which leads you to the obedience to the Lord.

3. If anyone seeks to sin, he  is (acting) against  the will of God and should
be considered one of the disobedient gentiles.

4. Remove from you injustice  and the love  for larger inheritance. Do not add
good to the good which the Lord gave you when you were born.

5. Do not  let the hair   of your head grow long,   do not keep it un-cut  and
groomed so it will bring loose women to you (to desire you).

6. Do Not wear fine clothes, because it brings temptation.

7. Do not wear  shoes which are brightly dyed  (flashy) or gold rings  in your
finger, because these are signs of fornicators.

8. Do not  make your hear  wetted or bridled and do  not take from the hair of
your beard which changes the figure or  spoils it from it natural (appearance)
because the commandment (of Moses) forbids such things.

9. If you rich and do not need a profession for living,  do not neglect wisdom
(meaning not to idle and instead spend your leisure time doing useful things).

10. When you  go out (of the house),  associate with believers and speak  with
them the words of living.

11.  You  must remove  the  evil from  among   you, and forgive  your brothers
quickly. We do not say that  to the rulers  (meaning that the ruler might have
to condemn and convict evil doers to keep order  in society). We advise you to
do good always, to receive from God unlimited rewards. And if through the will
of Satan you get angry,  do not the sun set  on your anger. Solomon said: "The
souls of  those who remember evil shall  receive death." The Lord commanded us
to love our enemies, how then can we despise our friends.

12.   If you desire  to become  Christian,  follow the Lord"s commandments and
absolve all the tie of evil.

13. Those who make hatred or judgment, or enmity are strangers to God, because
He is God of Mercy. From the beginning, He called all the  tribes of the earth
to repentance through   the godly, the  prophets, and  the righteous.  Because
those who lived before the flood had the examples of Abel, Seth, and Anoch who
was taken  (up to heaven).  Those who  lived  at the  time  of the  flood were
pre-warned by Noah. Those who were in  Sodom, were warned  by Lot who received
the  strangers (angels). Those  after the flood were taught  by the example of
Malchesadeque and the Fathers (meaning Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob) and Job. The
Egyptians were pre-warned  through Moses. The  Israelites were taught  through
Moses, Joshua son  of Nun, Kaleeb,  and Phenhass. Those  who  lived before His
(Christ) coming, were taught by John (the Baptist).his forerunner. Those after
His  coming, He  (Christ) preached to  them concerning  Himself when He  said:
"Repent, because the kingdom of heaven is near by."  Those after his suffering
in the flesh were preached to by us, the twelve Apostles,  and Paul who became
a vessel for honor.

14. That who busy himself  with food and bath (material  things) day and night
and neglects  the infinite (that which is  not  without beginning or  end, the
Lord), how can one not  say to him  the gentiles are  made more righteous than
you are, as the Lord scolded Jerusalem saying that Sodom became more righteous
than you (because you received me not).

15. What doe the Lord   say to those who come   to Church late. They make  the
practices of  faith  last  thing, and  their  work is  their God  to  worship.
Instead, do as the Lord said and make the worship first and  the work last. Do
not  labor  for the  food  which vanishes,  but  for the   food  which is life
everlasting. He also said:  "This is the work of  God,  to believe on  the one
whom He sent"

16.  It is unlawful for us,  the believers, to  be vulgar, or to tell secrets,
but  we must be steadfast in  our search (of  the holy words) because the Lord
commanded us saying: "Do Not  throw your jewels  in front of  the pigs" If the
non-believers, hear our witness concerning  Christ, they because of their lack
of faith might  mock us saying it is  not true, but  He said: "Woe to them who
blashpheme against His holy name"

17. Every one who swears, he is swearing against himself.

18. We know that the widows and orphans receive what God  sends their way with
the fear of God and thanksgiving.

19. Separate  yourselves from those who commit  killing or adultery, so no one
would say  that Nazarenes ("Nassara"  meaning Christians) joy in  acts against
the commandments, and  (know) that Christ does not  need us,  we need Him.  He
asks of us to be comforted in the faith and doing His will.

20. We advise you  our brothers, and  companions in  the  service (of  God) to
escape from  words of falsehood,  bad words, drunkenness,  and lust  for food.
All together, it is unlawful  for you to speak idle  words or do which is  not
useful. Especially on Sundays on which you should be enjoying spiritual

21. (St.) Peter said: "Do not speak evil of others, Do  Not do evil, Do not be
double hearted, or  speak from  both sides of  the mouth.  And  do not  desire
higher positions. And do not give an evil advise"

22. Andrews said: " Do not envy,  do not be stubborn, do  not desire to fight,
and do not be easily brought to anger, because anger can lead to killing."

23. Philip said: " Do not lust, because lust  leads to fornication. And if the
devil of anger  connects with the  devil of lust,  this (combination) leads to
destruction of those who follow them. The place of the evil  spirit is the sin
of the soul, and if  he (the devil) finds a  small place to enter, he enlarges
it and brings with him all the evil spirits and enter into  this soul. He will
not let this person rise again to see righteousness.

23. James said: "My son, do not  speak about the signs (of  the times), do not
offer incense (to idols),  do not follow  the hours or stars (horoscopes), and
do not desire to do so, because these are signs of idol worship"

24. Nathaniel said: "My son,  do not be a liar,  or lover of gold (money),  or
lover of false pride, because all these things  lead to stealing. Also, do not
be a grumbler, because grumbling leads to blasphemy. Do not  be buffed up, but
make  your fellowship with  the righteous and the humble  and every thing that
befalls you, accept with thanksgiving"

25. Receive the  communion from the hands of  the bishop, but the breaking  of
bread afterwards  is    blessing ("luqmaat     Barakka")  and not     offering
("qurbaan"). If the  bishop is not present, accept  communion from the priest.
If not  present from deacon (The  Church  does not  allow deacons to celebrate
Eucharist, an arch-deacon  may help with   giving communion, but even this  is
rare today). The layman shall not give communion.  (There must have been times
when highly  regarded deacon, gave  communion because of shortage  of priests)

26. Eat and drink  (body and blood) orderly, do  not drink until you get drunk
(meaning only  a small amount only when  you receive communion) so people will
not mock you.

27. It is   not proper  for a Christian   ("Nussrany") to  sing or clap   when
attending a wedding, but to eat in order as befit the saints.

28. It is  unlawful for believers to drink  in the houses  of  evil repute, or
those of the  ungodly, because  these  are drinking  outside (not obeying  the

29. My beloved, do  not act with  carelessness, do not roam  around aimlessly.
Do not desire silver or gold, but desire sufficiency of  food and close within

30.  The laymen may  engage in business, if he  could not labor  or farm (they
considered working with ones hands to  be more honored  than business which is
considered manipulation rather than labor).

31. Give all people more honor than yourself,  make peace with everyone and do
not desire  enmity. Do not hit anyone,  except the  little ones (children) for
teaching and punishment (necessary). And this you  do sparingly and carefully,
lest you cause big harm,  because (if  you  are not  careful) you might  cause

32. We must be awake always,  Do not close  your eyes, because we might sleep,
the  sleep   of carelessness. Do  not  be  comfortable  in being  baptized and
receiving the Eucharist, and do not say  I am Christian ("Nussrany") while you
love  material things and  do not follow  the commandments of  Christ. This is
like one who entered the bath full of dirt, and exited without rubbing, so his
dirt was poured on  him once more.   These are mocked  even by  Satan, because
their mouth said we cast you away Satan, but they hurried  back to him quickly
by their  bad deeds. Those who call  themselves Christian  and are not dressed
with  (good)  deeds, they  are  called  by the  Lord  and by  people, Satanic.
Because they did not desert the acts of evil  but affixed themselves to it, he
(Satan) gets their names here (rules them on earth) and in the other place (in
the thereafter), if they die in  heir sinful ways.  Because the Christian must
be like Christ in everything. Not desirous of what leads  to destruction.  Not
distributing his inheritance  to what is not leading  to salvation. Not  doing
what is  not right. Not short on  mercy. Not lover  of women, but to marry one
woman  only,  raising his   children in the   fear of  God.  Not escaping from
tribulations, reading and contemplating what he hears. Paying what he owes and
no be lazy. Not  neglecting of his slaves (servants),  but treating  them like
his own children.  Not difficult in  dealing or negotiating. Not neglecting of
offerings  ("Qurabeen"), first fruits   ("Nezoor"). If a  Christian  person is
affixed to all these (good) things ,  this is the one who  is like Christ, and
he will be on  His (Christ"s) right  hand praising  with  the angels  and will
receive from Him the crown of eternal life.

33. Do not love silver (money), the  love of money is the  source of all evil.
Let us desire sufficiency in food and cloths, because it is written for us put
your burdens on him and He will care for you.

34. Be deserving of hurrying up to the Church with a full desire (for being in
the Church) without hypocrisy and  do not neglect  the works of your hands  so
you and the poor of your people will have sufficiency.

       Duties of Parents Towards Children and Children Towards Parents

35. Parents: teach your children by the Lord and raise  them in politeness and
the knowledge of Christ. Teach them  trades appropriate for the words (meaning
worthy  trades or  hard  work), lest they   desire  idling. If  you neglect in
admonishing them when need be, they will grow  to be cruel  and not capable of
doing good.  For  this reason, do not  be  afraid to  teach and admonish  them
because this will not kill them but gives them life. Because Solomon said: "He
that spares his rod hates his son, but he that loves him chastenth him"
(Proverbs 13:24)

36. Teach your children the  fear of the lord and  crown them with (necessary)
spanking, they will obey you from childhood.

37.  Teach them  all  the Holy Books of  God,  and  do  not  relent, lest they

38. Do  not let them  go with  peers to public  drinking places,  because this
would lead them to evil doing.

39. If they commit wrong with the  approval of their  parents both parents and
children shall be punished. For this chasten them.

40. At the proper time for marriage, find for them the good spouses.

41. It is not required of  children to give  gifts to parents, but for parents
to give good gifts to their children.

42. Children obey your parents in the Lord, because it is good to do so.  This
also is  the first commandment:  Honor your father and mother  so your days on
earth shall be longer. Parents do not provoke your children to anger but raise
them in the nurture and admonition (teachings) of our Lord.

43. Children  obey your parents   because this is seen as   good by the  Lord.
Parents do not get upset  unnecessarily with your  children, because this  can
cause them grief.

44. Teach your children the prayers of the hours with all purity.

45. Honor your parents in the flesh because they brought you to the world. 

                              Husbands and Wives

46. Paul  the  Apostle said in  his  epistle to the Ephesians:  "Wives, submit
yourselves unto your own husbands,  as unto the  Lord. For the husband is  the
head of the  wife, even as Christ is  the head of  the church:  and he is  the
saviour of the body.  Therefore as the  church is subject  unto Christ, so let
the wives be to their own husbands in  every thing. Husbands, love your wives,
even as  Christ also loved  the church, and gave himself  for it; " (Ephesians
47.  (St.)  Peter said: "Likewise,  ye  wives, be in  subjection  to  your own
husbands;  that, if any  obey not the word, they  also may without the word be
won by the   conversation of   the  wives; While    they behold your    chaste
conversation  coupled with  fear. Whose adorning   let it not  be that outward
adorning of plaiting  the hair, and  of wearing of  gold, or of putting on  of
apparel;  But let it  be the hidden man  of  the heart, in  that  which is not
corruptible,  even the ornament  of a meek  and quiet spirit,  which is in the
sight of  God of great price. For  after this manner in the  old time the holy
women also, who  trusted in God, adorned themselves,  being in subjection unto
their   own husbands: Even  as Sara  obeyed  Abraham, calling  him lord: whose
daughters ye are,   as long as   ye do  well,  and are   not  afraid with  any
amazement." (I peter 3:1-6)

48.  And to the men, live  with your wives fully minded  that  they are weaker
vessels and honor them because they inherit with you eternal life.

49. Listen all ye servants,  sons of God, every male   person should bare  his
wife,  and  do not be buffed  up  or two faced  towards  her, but be  kind and
straight  forward. Be fast  at pleasing her, and do  not desire another woman,
otherwise you are forcing her to do likewise.

50.  Woman,  fear  your  husband, be mindful   of  him, please  him only after
pleasing God. Give him comfort and serve his needs.

51. A wise woman shall do every good thing for her husband. She shall care for
all the affairs of her servants,  and her hands  serve all that  is good.  Her
fingers are on the weaving machine. She gives to the poor,  and she sews cloth
for her husband and herself. (See Proverbs 21:10-)

52. If  you walk in the way,  cover your  head with your  robe, and  with your
purity. This will save you from the staring of evil people. Do Not put make up
on your face, because no part of you needs it. Let your face always look down,
and you are covered all around.

53. A  free woman shall not let  her hair  down  in the  Church. She shall not
leave her Children  with baby sitters, she shall  not cease the service of her
household, and she shall not talk back to her husband.

                            About Slaves/Servants

54. Paul said in his epistle to Colossians: "Servants, obey in all things your
masters according to  the flesh; not  with eyeservice, as  menpleasers; but in
singleness of heart, fearing God: And whatsoever ye do, do  it heartily, as to
the Lord, and  not unto men; Knowing that  of  the Lord  ye shall receive  the
reward of the  inheritance: for ye  serve the  Lord Christ. But  he that doeth
wrong shall receive for the wrong which he hath done: and  there is no respect
of persons." (Colossians 3:22-)

55. Masters be fair to your servants and treat all of them the same.

56. Forgive your servants their sins against you, so the Lord will forgive you
your sins, and He does not take by the face (has no respect of person).

57. The Christian does  not put his  slaves  (servants) down, but  treats them
like his own children.

58. He should give them rest on Sundays and Holidays.

                           Concerning Satanic Acts

59. Those who practice witchcraft,  horoscope, soothsayers, and interpretation
of dreams, interpreters of needs,  operators of houses of entertainment, shall
all be separated.

60. Those who follow the teachings  of Pharisees ("Hounaffaa") or teachings of
the Jews shall be warned first then they shall be separated.

61. Those who are false priests, meet with doers of magic, or devil priests or
servants shall be separated .

62. Those   who tie or    loosen or do call on    spirits ("mandaal") shall be

63. Those who follow maggots, or contemplate the phase of the  sun or the moon
to do certain things, and those who tie robes, or dance,  or chant for casting
the devil shall also be separated.


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD) On First Fruits
                    Tithes, Promises (Pledges), and Trusts
                                  Chapter 18

1. The Lord said in the Torah: Give Tithes, Give Tithes from the fruits of all
your grain and plants and everything your land produces

2. In the  Gospel He said: Give to  God what is  Gods Also  when He wooed  the
Pharisees, He said: You do not follow  the simple things  of showing mercy and
having faith He said you should have done this and not neglect the others.

3. For  those who are  full time servants  in the Church  to receive all their
needs from the Church if they are priests or  deacons as mentioned in the book
of Levites concerning priests. The Lord told Aaron: You  and your children and
your children children have been given the offerings which  are offered to the
Lord for your  labors and you  shall keep the  offerings which the  Israelites
shall offer  unto me. And later on  in the  same book it   said, all the first
fruits of oil, wine, and grain is for you (the priests). Also, every forbidden
and every first born of people and animals is yours.

4.  The first fruits of the  land and your  press, oil, honey, milk, wool, and
the first wages of your labors,  you shall take  to the priest or bishop (when
present), and he shall pray a thanksgiving prayer for you outside the altar in
your presence.

5. Promises in the law are covenant between man  and his creator, by which one
completes a virtue for himself or  his offspring or to obtain  a need from God
the Al-mighty,  which one determines  in his mind or loudly  in private  or in
front of  a witness to  satisfy the  promise when one   receives what he asked
for. A promise can also be made through the intercession of  a saint or martyr
or directly to God. Promises could be monetary or material.

6. What one promises of himself is fasting, prayer, celibacy, monastic living,
or abstaining from  bad habits for  the salvation of the soul  or to receive a
perceived benefit on earth or a real benefit in heaven.

7. Promising an offspring  (son or daughter) to the  Lord is a good thing, but
if one changes his mind let him  pay 50 Shekels  of Silver for a promised male
age 20 to  60. And for  a female  two  thirds this  amount. If the  age of the
promised is 5 to 20 years, then he has to pay 20 Shekels of  Silver, if it was
female, let him pay 10 Shekels of Silver. If the  promised age is  5 year to 1
month, let him pay 5 Shekels of Silver, and for a female let him pay 3 Shekels
of Silver.

8.  If one promises  and can  not pay what  he promised,  let  him come to the
priest or bishop and the priest or bishop will determine what he can afford to
pay according to his situation.

9.  If one promised a sheep or any other animal and wants to  pay money in its
place, let him come to the priest and the  priest will determine a fair amount
to be paid instead. Let the priest be fair in the fear of God without favoring
the Church over the worshipers and also let him not be lenient either. Let all
measures be  proper weight (Methkaal), one Methkaal  is 20 Daniques. According
to this measure, estimate all promises.

10. Any promise you make, do it timely without delay or neglect, otherwise you
will be committing a sin  against God, because  if you can  not satisfy do not
promise so you will not fall in sin. But all the promises  of your mouths, you
shall do what you promised.

11.  Every man  who promises or   swore, or made  himself owe  to God let  him
fulfill his promise and let him not go back on the word of his mouth. But if a
woman promised and she  was still in her fathers  house, and if her father did
not  object to the  promise, he is responsible for  the promise if she can not
fulfill.  If she is married the  same applies to  her husband in  place of her


12. There is six  issues related  to trusts:  1)  The Trust,  2) The Items  in
Trust,  3) The Person Who Makes  a Trust, 4) The  Place for Which the Trust Is
Made, 5)  The One Who Manages  the Trust, and  6) The Rest  of the Conditions.

13) Trusts are two  kinds: Gifts and Donations.

14. Trust for  those  who are  not poor  at the  time of forming  a trust like
parents, relatives,  or  friend. This type  is a  gift from  the  giver to the
receiver intended for good remembrance on earth and in the thereafter.

15.  Trusts for the  needy and poor strangers  or relatives alike. Intended to
help (benefit) those who receive them in the world and to benefit the giver in
the thereafter. This is a blessed giving which will benefit the giver on earth
and in heaven, because if the  Apostle Paul says: `That if  one sins, he reaps
the wages of sin here and thereafter' It is logical to say that the Justice of
Al-Mighty that the benefits of giving are here and it will follow him (meaning
in heaven).

16. Trusts  are those   things which  give   benefit without decrease   of the
original value. It  is preferred not to use   money for trusts,  instead fixed
assets like  real estate, farms, fields  and the likes as mentioned previously
concerning  Church Trusts. There are  fixed assets  which are  not  good for a
trust like a barren  land or  farm, because  it  produces no profit. Also  not
recommended to give for  a trust slaves, or  bee hives, or sheep, because  the
value thereof can  change and also it  can completely disappear through theft,
escape, or the likes.

17. If one desires to use  the mentioned (above), as  a trust, it is better if
it is sold and the money is used  to buy what  is more appropriate for a trust

18. If one has equipment  or items like the  above included as  a trust, it is
better  to give  the  fixed  assets as  a trust,  and  the other  assets as  a
donation,  so the receiver of  the trust can sell it   easily if he  needs to.

19. The one who initiates a trust should be capable and have reached the legal
age and in sound body (health) and mind.

20.  Those who  receive  the trust  should be  abiding  by the  Godly  Cannons
(Followers of the faith of  God), and not be idol  worshippers. And in general
those who do not worship God, robbers, and fornicators should be excluded from
receiving trusts. If the trust  is already made to them,  it should be stopped
until  it is proven that  they have stopped their  sinful ways,  at which time
they start to gain  their benefits again.  It  is forbidden to create  a trust
for unknowns.

21. The  administrator of a trust  shall be selected by  the  one who make the
trust, and shall rule over it while the maker of the  trust is alive and after
his death. The maker of the trust can administer  it in his  life as well, but
if he dies without appointing an administrator, the receiver  of the trust can
administer it if he is  capable, also it can be  administered by one appointed
by the ruler as the ruler see fit.

22. The administrator can be the bishop as well.

23. If through  witnesses it is proven  that the  administrator is mismanaging
the trust, he  can be replaced  by one known of  being honest and capable. The
receiver of a trust can not rule it as sole administrator, also administrators
can not rule without the receiver(s).

24. The administration of trusts (by bishops) is like what was mentioned under
giving, if they are  made administrators of the affairs  (souls) of the people
of God,   are they not   capable of  handling  trust. Also,  the saying,  they
administer all that belong  to the Church of  God. Trust shall be administered
by people who are honest and have the fear of God in them.

25.  Ten Rules  for  Running a Trust.  First,  it shall  be used  only for the
benefit of the beneficiaries until it vanishes, and  none of it shall be sold,
and if  it is  sold,  it should  be replaced. It   can not be given   away, or
transferred, or used as collateral, or as ransom, or as  donation. And it also
shall be cared for carefully.

26. second, the  conditions of the  trust shall be  followed exactly, which is
the continued benefit of the receiver of the trust.

27. third,  if a trust was  made for one who  was missing, the benefit goes to
the Church only to be used for supporting the needy. if relative(s) of the one
who made the trust are needy they are given priority over others  in need.  As
for  the  needy, it is   according to priority based on   higher  levels need.

28. Also, if a trust is made to one who is not  qualified to receive, it shall
return to the Church as explained above. But,  it shall return to the original
receiver if it is proven that he corrected his ways.

29. If there was an end time for the trust, it shall be administered according
to rules above and  if it stops early and  starts again, shall be according to
above rules.

30. If the receiver of a trust is in bad need, he  shall receive what he needs
even if it means that the trust will disappear!!!

31. fourth, The improvement of the trust is according  to the rules set by the
maker of the trust regardless of how the recipient feels about these rules.

32. fifth, If the trust is deteriorating, income from  the trust shall be used
to repair it at the time of the problem or at future time.

33.  sixth, if  the maker of  a trust  is  impoverished, he   shall have first
priority to receive what  satisfies his needs before those  to whom  the trust
was made.

34. seventh, If one makes a trust of a property which is not a sole ownership,
he can do so.  The other owners  can chose to  divide the property if this  is
possible to do.

35. eighth, It is unlawful to tax trusts as stated by Bassellious.

36. It is  unlawful to  make  a trust  without witnesses  known to be  of good
conduct, and knowledge. Seven  or five witnesses,  but if  that number is  not
available, trust witnesses can be three or two of the best present.

37. tenth, It is unlawful for the maker of a trust to hide parts or all of it,
be warned of what happened to Annania and his wife Saphira as mentioned in the
book of Acts. Also, as the Lord punished Aber Ibn Karmy when he hid the silver
and (statues in his tent) breaking the commands of (God)  by Joshua the son of
Noon, which caused him, his family, and his animals to be destroyed.


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
             On Sundays, Saturdays, Lord's Feasts, and Pilgrimage
                                  Chapter 19

1. It is not  proper for Christians to take  Saturday as their Holiday  as the
Jews do. They should work Saturday. ....

2. Do not keep Saturday as the Jews do.

3. Do  not prostrate yourself on  Sundays and the  Lord's feasts because it is
days of joy.  Although  it should  not be  done,   no one should  fear  Church
punishment if they do.

4.  On Sundays, there     should be  no  judgment   or  holding of   court  or
investigation. And   no  one should  ask  another for   a  debt or  any unpaid
obligation  on this day,  but  you all should  go  together to Church. You all
should come to Church with  purity and humility without  fear of an enemy or a
judge or  the likes. And if  any  tax collector  dares to collect  from people
going to Church, he should be made to pay penalty.

5. Meet  in the Church   everyday as you can, and   specially on Saturdays and
Sundays. If the gentiles do not miss a meeting and also the Jews do not miss a
Sabbath day meeting, and they both gain none, how can you answer the Lord when
you do not attend the Church of God.

6. Do not speak unprofitable words at all times,  and especially on Sundays in
which we rejoice spiritually in the Lord. The prophet  said: `Worship the Lord
with gladness and praise Him in fear and trembling'

7.  The servants shall work  five days, and they  shall use Saturday, on which
the Lord rested, and Sunday on which he rose again to serve God.

8. It  was stated under fasting,  that you do  not fast (abstain) on Saturdays
and Sundays, except the Saturday on which He was in tomb.

9.  On all Saturdays and  Sundays, except Saturday  in which  the Lord was  in
tomb, come together in the Church and rejoice.

10. The first  Lord's feast is the  annunciation on the  mouth  of Gabriel the
Archangel to the queen  of  us all, the  mother  of the  savior Mary. This  is
celebrated on the 29th of Baramhaat.

11. Remember to keep these feasts to the Lord: The Lord's Birth on the 25th of
the 9th month of the Hebrew Calendar which is the 29th of the 4th month of the
Coptic Calendar.  Epiphany must  be honored by   you, because on this  day the
Lord's divinity was revealed when He was baptized  by John (the Baptist), this
shall be celebrated on the 6th of the 10th month of the Hebrew Calendar, which
is the 11th of the 5th month of the Coptic Calendar.

12. Let us celebrate these feasts at night not because we dislike fasting, but
because we honor the feast.

13.  Celebrate  the feast  of the `Zaitouna'  (Olive  Branches)  (meaning Palm
Sunday), because on it the Lord entered Jerusalem.

14. It is lawful for you who were bought with  the precious blood of Christ to
celebrate the Pascha.  Do it once  a year and  not twice, because He who died,
died once for all of us.

15. Be careful not to celebrate your Pascha with the Jewish Pascha, since they
celebrate 14 days  after   the Crescent, you    celebrate 21 days   after  the

16. Only on   a  Sunday shall   you  celebrate Resurrection  and  do it  after
midnight,  at the cocks crow,  and be together  in  the Church the whole night
praying and  reading  the  psalms, prophets,   and  the  law. If  you  baptize
unbelievers that day, read the Gospels to them in fear  and trembling. Talk to
the  people what is profitable  for their  salvation  and bring your offerings
which the Lord commanded you  to do on the hands  of the Apostles saying:  `do
this in remembrance  of me' Then break your  fast rejoicing  that Jesus Christ
Rose from the dead and became the first  to rise again.  Let that be a law for
you unto the age of ages. And in this age unto the second  coming of the Lord.

17. Eight days   after Resurrection is   a feast, because  on this  day Thomas
believed and  was satisfied when  the Lord showed him  the places of the nails
and the place of the spear in his side.

18. From the  first day  after resurrection count   40 days and celebrate  the
Ascension  of  the Lord which  was  the completion  of  all things   He was to
complete. He ascended to the Father who sent Him and sat  on the right hand of
the Power.

19. Ten days  after  Ascension, which   is  the 50th day  after  resurrection,
celebrate the   descent of the Holy  Spirit  (Pentecost). Let this be  a great
feast because at the  third hour on that  day  our Lord Jesus Christ  sent the
Holy Spirit, the Barakleet and the Disciples were filled  with the Holy Spirit
and spoke with many diverse tongues as they were given utterances and preached
the Jews and the Gentiles that Christ is the Lord.

20.   After you celebrate the Pentecost,   celebrate another  week, because we
should celebrate the gift of the Holy Spirit which was given to us.

21. It is a sin to fast on resurrection Sunday or during the Pentecost Season,
because these  are days of  spiritual joy and  we should not  replace joy with

22.  Do not do  any  work on  Paschal  Friday or  the  Sunday that follows it,
resurrection because these are feasts to the lord.

23. Do not do any work on the day of ascension because it is the day on which
the Lord's will was completed.

24. Do not do any work on the day  of Pentecost, because on  this day the Holy
Spirit descended on the believers by Christ.

25. Do not do any work on the day of  Christ Birth because  on this date Grace
was willed to all humans.

26. Do not do any work on the day of the feast of the bathe (epiphany) because
on this day the divinity of Christ was manifested and the Father testified for
Him and the Holy Spirit descended on Him like a dove and the Baptist testified
for Him saying this is truly God and the Son of God.

27. Do not do any  work on the feast of  the Apostles because they became your
teachers who taught you the knowledge of Christ and made you worthy to receive
the communion of the Holy Spirit.

28.  It came in the Chapter on giving, that you should not come to your Lord's
feasts in the hands of the Lord empty handed.

29. About the pilgrimage to the Holy Land, "beet Allah almighty" (the house of
the Al-mighty God). You shall visit the Holy Land if  you can, to see the Holy
sites, do  it without delay.   Visit the places  of  Christ passion  where  He
suffered in the flesh and also  visit the place  where He rose again (the Holy
Sepulcher) and receive the blessings of these holy places. If you can not make
the visit, send offerings in the visit place to  help maintain the holy places
and to support those who care for it as  you can. Your  offerings can be gold,
or silver, or clothes, or vessels, or appropriate books,  or the likes.  Also,
the Holy Land can  have a portion  in your will with  those others who receive
inheritance from you. This is good and acceptable to  the Lord. It will be for
you an offering in the Holy Land acceptable to God The Father  and the Son and
the Holy Spirit.


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
        Concerning Martyrs, Confessors, and those who Depart the Faith
                                  Chapter 20

1. The Martyrs  shall be held  in high esteem with  you as they  were with us.
Like James the  Blessed (the Great) Bishop  and Stephen the Arch-deacon. Those
are blessed by God and their virtues are unimaginable.

2.  The Christian who is despised by a government for the sake  of the name of
the Lord and the  orthodox faith and for the  love  of the Lord  deserves your
support, with exceeding effort take care  of the needs  of such so he may find
the strength to continue. Also care for those whom he cared for so he does not
have to worry about them. Because such person is a  martyr, a saint, a brother
of Christ, and a son of the most high, and a dwelling for the Holy Spirit, and
a witness for  the suffering of Christ and  an heir to  the form of his glory.

3. For this reason, all you believers, serve the needs of the saints with your
possessions and your efforts. If one of you has nothing  to give, let him fast
and give half his wages to the saints, but if one is wealthy let him give from
his wealth and his  wages everyday to  the saints. And if  one has to give all
what he  owns to free  one  of those  brothers, he  will be blessed  friend of

4. The martyrs  are those about  whom the Lord said:  `If one professes me  in
front of people, I profess him in front of my Father in  heaven.' If you share
with them their sorrows, you will be professed in heaven because you cared for

5.  If one who helps the martyrs is punished for it,  he is blessed because he
shared  with the martyrs  and   became like Christ   in  sharing with  Him the
suffering. We  also (meaning the  Apostles) have suffered many tribulations on
the hands  of the (head)  priests and  we  used to depart  from their presence
filled with joy because we became worthy to  share the suffering of Christ our
Savior.   So, you also  rejoice  if you suffer  likewise  because  you will be
blessed in the day of judgment.

6.  Those who  are persecuted for  the orthodox faith and  have to escape from
city to city for the commandments of the Lord, receive them, comfort them, and
honor them like the martyrs. Rejoice if you  share with them their persecution
because  Christ said: `Blessed   are you if  they  persecute you  for  my name
because they  persecuted  the prophets before you.   Rejoice and  be extremely
glad.  If they persecuted me,  will they not persecute you!'  If they dive you
out of a city, escape to  another. Also, in this  world their shall be sorrows
and they shall bring you in front of councils, kings,  and leaders for my sake
and this  shall be a witness  for  you. Those who  endure to  the end shall be
saved.  Those   who turn away and  love  themselves more  than  their love for
Christ will not receive mercy,  because they loved the  people more than their
love for God  and are  enemies of  God, and in  place of  the eternity of  the
blessed they shall receive eternal damnation  in the pit  of fire. Because for
this the Lord said: `Who denies me in front of people, I deny  him in front of
the angels of my Father.'

7.  The Lord told us His disciples, if one loves son or daughter more than his
love for me, he does not deserve  me. And he who does  not carry his cross and
follow me, does not deserve me. If one loves his self, he shall despise it And
he that despises his self for  me, shall find  it. What does  one profit if he
looses his self and what shall one give for ones self.  He also said: ` Do not
be afraid of those who  kill the body  and has no  power on your souls. I tell
whom you shall fear. Fear him who after he kills the body has power to put the
body and soul both in he fire of eternal damnation'

8.  We ought to pray lest we fall into temptation. Also if  we are prepared to
witness, let us do it  with steadiness confessing  the Glorified name which is
the name of our savior.

9.  Let us not be surprised  if we are persecuted.  Let us love not the world,
neither the honors of the  world, neither the glory  of the world, neither the
glory of  the  leaders of  the world,  and let us  not be  like the  Jews  who
preferred  the  glory  of  this   world more  than  the  glory  of  the Lord. 

10.    Let us  confess  so we   can  be saved (relieved)   and  become able to
strengthen others so  that we are not cause   for destruction of  others which
leads to our eternal suffering many times over (if we do not confess).

11.  Let us  not lead ourselves  into  temptation, because the Lord  said' The
Spirit is willing, but the  flesh is weak.' But if  we fall in temptation, let
us not change our story (lie)  for fear of  short suffering. And if one denies
the Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God, because he is  afraid of suffering for a
short while, he is setting himself up for grave sickness which has no cure and
his suffering will  be  here and in  the  thereafter  in the darkness   of the
outcasted where weeping and gnashing of teeth.

12.  If  one is suffering for Christ  sake before receiving baptism, he should
go without sorrow  of the heart because  the  suffering he endures  for Christ
sake is to  him pure baptism, because  he dies with  Christ in  his suffering.

13.  Let him (who is martyred) not worry about  baptism because he is baptized
by his own blood.

14.  If one left the orthodox faith  because of fear of  the unbelievers or by
force, and if he comes back to the faith with  pure repentance and sorrow from
the heart, and with  humility and willingness  to profess the  orthodox faith,
receive him. If he was previously a priest, he  can again serve the priesthood
because  his denial was  not by his free  will. If he was a  laymen, he can be
allowed to serve in the church and if qualified to join the priesthood. But if
one departed  the faith, out of fear   without being beaten  or persecuted, or
without losing possessions for the faith, this  shall stay in repentance for a
long time. Only after he is proven to repent, will he receive communion except
if he was sick the sickness of death, but if he recovers from his sickness, he
shall continue in his repentance.

15.   Those mentioned above  shall be  accepted back   to  the fold after long
repentance  (as  mentioned above)  because  our religion teaches  kindness and

16.  If one caused others  as well to depart  the faith, his repentance period
shall be longer.

17.   Everyone whose  blood  was shed  for   the (Christian)  faith,  shall be
considered martyr and shall have a remembrance on the date of his martyrdom.

18.  The places where you the martyrs (remains)  are kept, shall be controlled
by the universal Church,  not that the Church  needs the corpses,  but because
the martyrs are the  glory of the Church. Because  the Holy Spirit spoke about
one Holy, Catholic  (Universal), Apostolic  Church based  on our  fathers  the
saintly Apostles (many of them were martyrs).

19.  Let us place the remains of the  martyrs in the Churches and Monasteries,
so  that miracles and wonders  shall take place in those  places for those who
are sick, in distress, or  in bad need. Those  who mock these things, God will
convict them through  the wonders and miracles and  the healing of bodies  and
souls and the casting out of devils (through the intercession of the martyrs).

20.  Who through the sin of pride mocks those  who come to the martyrs feasts,
shall be anathematized.

21.  It is unlawful for  the believers to leave the  feasts of the martyrs  of
Christ and attend celebrations for martyrs not  in Christ. Remember the saying
of the  Apostle Paul: `Who  shall separate us from the  love of  Christ? shall
tribulation, or distress, or  persecution, or famine,  or nakedness, or peril,
or sword?  As it is written, For thy sake we  are killed all  the day long; we
are accounted as sheep for the slaughter.'  (Romans 8:35-36).

22.  The Apostle  Paul continues in the  epistle to the Corinthians: `Are they
ministers of Christ? (I speak as a fool) I am more;  in labours more abundant,
in stripes above measure, in prisons more frequent, in deaths oft. Of the Jews
five times received I forty  stripes save one. Thrice was  I beaten with rods,
once was I stoned, thrice I suffered shipwreck, a night and  a day I have been
in the deep; In journeyings often, in perils of  waters, in perils of robbers,
in perils by mine own countrymen, in  perils by the  heathen, in perils in the
city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils among false
brethren;  In  weariness and  painfulness, in watchings  often, in  hunger and
thirst, in fastings   often,  in   cold   and nakedness.'    (II   Corinthians
11:23-27). Showing the  many types of sufferings he  endured for Christ's sake
including hunger, Thirst, beatings,  imprisonment, hiding, fearful situations,
laboring, sleeplessness, nakedness, cold exposure,  being thrown to the lions,
.. etc.  He at   the  end endured and with   patience  received the   crown of
martyrdom when his blood was offered (As  a Roman Citizen  he was beheaded) in
the city of Rome. Also,  most of the Apostles were  martyred and their stories
are in the books of  the martyrs (meaning the  Synxarium) and is read on their
feasts, so we ask the Lord to give us the benefit of their intercessions so we
can be successful  in  all the affairs   of our lives. To   Him  is Glory  and
Thanksgiving unto the age of ages.  Amen.


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                             Concerning the Sick
                                  Chapter 21

                          What The Sick Ought to Do

1. The Apostle Yacoub (James) said in the Catholic Epistle: `Is any sick among
you? let  him call for the elders  of the church; and let  them pray over him,
anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord: And the  prayer of faith shall
save the sick, and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he have committed sins,
they shall be forgiven him.' (James 5:14,15).

2.  The Gospel  testified that when the  Lord sent the   Apostles two by  two,
they anointed the sick  for the healing of their  sickness. And the crazed man
who troubled the  disciples in the  beginning of their ministry,  they brought
him to the  Lord (to Jesus) and  He healed him  and commanded the  devil to be
cast out while saying:  `This kind can not be  cast out except by  fasting and

3.  The prophet David said in the psalms: `{To  the chief Musician, A Psalm of
David.} Blessed is he that considereth the poor:  the LORD will deliver him in
time of trouble. The LORD will preserve him, and  keep him alive; and he shall
be blessed upon the earth: and thou wilt not deliver him  unto the will of his
enemies. The  LORD will strengthen him upon  the bed of languishing: thou wilt
make all his bed in his sickness.'  (Psalms 41:1-3).
4.  The Book  of Kings (in  the Old Testament) mentions that  the one who sent
to the Gods of  Aphron to ask  for healing was  scolded by  the Lord and  died

                    What the Believers Should Do for Them

5.  The Lord said: `I was sick and you visited me.'

6.  He also said: `And the King  shall answer and  say unto them, Verily I say
unto you, Inasmuch  as ye  have  done it unto one  of  the least of  these  my
brethren,  ye have done it unto  me. Then shall he  say  also unto them on the
left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed,  into everlasting fire, prepared for the
devil and his angels:' (Matt 25:40-41).
7.  The  Apostles  said: `The sick who  are  not able to  come  to the Church,
visit them every day.'

8.  The deacons  are required to inform their   bishop (and/or priest) of  all
that are sick, so he visits them.

9.  The completion of these  commands are mentioned  in the chapter on giving.


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                           Concerning the Departed
                                  Chapter 22

1. Get together without delay in the Church to read the Holy Books and to sing
(the appropriate) songs  on them who  departed, the  martyrs,  the saints, the
leaders, and the brethren who departed while in the faith of God.  Afterwards,
have the Communion of thanksgiving which is the holy body and honored blood of
the  King (of  Glory) in   the  Church to   say  your  farewell to those   who
departed. You begin (the funeral service) by walking in  front of (the casket)
him  singing  (the appropriate)  hymns if he  departed  while in  the faith of
Christ. The  prophet David said: `Precious in  the  sight of  the LORD  is the
death of his saints.' (Psalm 116:15).  Also he said:  `Return unto thy rest, O
my soul;  for the LORD hath dealt  bountifully with thee.' (Psalm 116:7). Also
in the Gospel, He speaks about the God of the Living saints:  `I am the God of
Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the
dead, but of the living.' (Matthew 22:32) (meaning that those who departed are
not dead but alive in the paradise).

2. Also  about the bones  of (the departed), those who  are alive in the Lord,
these bones are not despised or  unclean. Think of how  the bones (remains) of
Elisah raised the dead who was  killed by the  allies of the Syrians. When his
corpse came  close  to the bones  of Elisah,  he was   raised.  This was  only
possible because the body (remains) of Elisah is holy.

3.  Also, Joseph the wise embraced the body of his father Jacob  on the bed of
his  death. Also  (the  prophets)    Moses and    Joshua  carried  the    body
(bones/remains)  of Joseph (out  of Egypt) and did not  consider it unclean or
defiled (deed).

4.  We the  bishops shall touch the  bodies of those who  departed and do  not
consider   it unclean to do  so.  But  let  us do it   with  purity and wisdom

5. Washing  (bathing) the   dead is  allowed  but  not absolutely  necessary. 
Remember the young woman, Tabetha. The Book of Acts  mentions that they washed
her and if it was not allowed,  the saints (believers) would  not have done it
because the  disciples  would have  prevented  them from  doing it.  Also, the
departed  could be wearing  (affected by) the  effects of  their sickness, for
this reason they ought to be  washed before they  enter (are brought) into the

6.  Also it  was mentioned in laws  in the Old Testament  that if a woman dies
after she gives birth, wash  her body  and bring her   to the Church,  because
death has cleansed her.

7.   If the departed was   a priest (clergy) bring  him  in front of the altar
(area  where deacons usually stand), but  if he was   one of the congregation,
bring him farther away from the altar. The highest  ranking priest shall start
the service with the prayer of thanksgiving, then  the Psalms, and Gospel from
the  verses  concerning    the rising  up  of   the  dead and   confessing the
resurrection of  the dead and  the  life of the  coming  ages. After that  the
ranking  priest followed  by   those who are in    attendance shall greet  the
departed kissing him (his casket?).  Afterwards, the ranking priest shall pour
oil on  him  (his casket)  after  that he  shall  be kept (buried) in  a place
suitable to his position (in the Church, meaning bishops with bishops, priests
with other priests, etc.).

8.  Pray the third day for those who departed using the Psalms and the Prayers
of the Departed, because Christ rose on  the third day.  Do also a remembrance
of the live  and  dead on the seventh  day.  Also do  a  remembrance after the
completion of one month  and the completion of  one year, because this is what
the Israelites  did for Moses.  Give to the poor  from the possessions  of the
departed and  if you are invited to  eat, do it orderly  and with  the fear of

9. You ought to remember those who departed on the third, seventh, fourteenth,
and fortieth day.

10.  Also,  remember   them  on the  ninth,  twelfth,  fortieth  day, and  the
completion of two months.

11.  The customary in the Church  these days (the  time of Awlaad Al-Assal) is
to have service  on the day of burial,  the tenth day,  the completion of  one
month, six months, and one year. And many  who can afford have liturgy service
on the completion of the fortieth day and give to  the poor on this day. Those
who can do more, let them. These extras will not benefit the departed but will
please him (his soul).

12.  If a  bishop depart, the  "Khoury Abescopose" (assistant bishop), priests
and deacons shall walk in front of him  (his casket procession) as children in
their father's funeral. But if one of those departs, the  bishop shall walk in
front as a father in his son's funeral. In their funeral, the readings will be
as  appropriate  for  a teacher   and  a worthy  spiritual father.  The entire
congregation shall attend their   funeral because  they are called   spiritual
fathers to all, and   it shall be made known   of their departure in all   the
Churches  and  all the   Monasteries of  their  region.  Also,  they  shall be
remembered in the Church without restriction?.

13.  Do not  be unfair in burial expense,   pay those who  dig the  graves and
those who  are in custody of  them. Let the bishop pay  from the income of the
Church for maintaining these places (when necessary).

14.  Do not grieve for those who are departed.  Those who do  are the ones who
have no hope as the Apostle Paul said (1 Tess 4:13).

15.  Because the sorrow which is for the sake  of God gives us repentance from
sin, but the sorrow for the world produces death.

16. If a  priest loses a  family member, let  him neither grieve, nor rent his
cloth, nor cry, nor weep, nor pull his hair, but  be extremely thankful to God
and have patience like the patience of Job.


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
              Concerning Food, Dress, Housing, and Lines of Work
                                  Chapter 23

                               Concerning Food

1.  About food, nothing is forbidden except those which  were forbidden by the
Apostles in the Book of  Acts and their  Cannons in which  they said: `That ye
abstain  from meats  offered to   idols,  and from    blood, and from   things
strangled, and from fornication: from which if ye keep yourselves, ye shall do
well.  Fare ye well.' (Acts 15:29).  Also do not eat  what lion (wild animals)
kill, and this comes from the Old testament (Exodus 22:31). You are not to eat
what  was   offered to  idols,   because  by doing  so   you  share with idols
worshippers their worship and that  can lead you  to worshipping idols.  These
forbidden things  also  have  bad effects  on the   body,  the mind,  and  the
soul. When it hurts the body, it hurts also the persons  behavior and can lead
to destruction. These things are not defile  by nature, because they are God's
creation, but because it can harm us, it was written for  us in the Torah that
God found everything He created to be very good.  Also in the Gospel, the Lord
said: `There is nothing from without a man, that entering  into him can defile
him: but the  things which come out  of him,  those  are they  that defile the
man.' (Mark 7:15). Saint  John "Golden Mouth"  Chrysostom said by this saying,
the Lord rescinded many of the laws of the Torah.

2. This opinion is supported  by what came in  the Book of  Acts stated by St.
Luke the Evangelist: `On the  morrow, as they went on  their journey, and drew
nigh unto the city, Peter  went up upon the housetop  to pray about the  sixth
hour: And  he became very hungry,  and would have eaten:  but while  they made
ready, he fell into a   trance, And saw heaven  opened,  and a certain  vessel
descending unto him, as it  had been a great sheet  knit at the four  corners,
and let down to the earth: Wherein were all manner of fourfooted beasts of the
earth, and wild beasts,  and creeping things, and  fowls of the air. And there
came a voice to him, Rise, Peter; kill, and eat. But Peter said, Not so, Lord;
for  I have never eaten  any thing that  is  common or  unclean. And the voice
spake  unto him again  the second time, What  God hath cleansed, that call not
thou common. This was done thrice:  and the vessel was  received up again into
heaven.' (Acts 10:9 -16).

3. The learned saints  John Chrysostom and  others understood this to mean two

First, hidden meaning that the gentiles after they believe are not defiled and
it is proper for the Jews to meet with them and have communion with them,

Second, Obvious meaning which is animals are clean and are to be used for food
as long as common sense sees that they are fit for us to eat.

4.  So anything other  than blood, strangled,  slaughtered for idols, and wild
animals kill are legitimate for us to eat except that  we also have to abstain
from what  the law forbade  since it forbade it because  it  can harm the body
and/or the soul.

5.  The above is two categories,

First, Things that  are  not fit to eat  which  includes not only  animals but
plants as well which can be poisonous. Examples are animals which do not spilt
toe  nail  and animals  which have  hooks   or trunks  because these  could be
poisonous or feed on poisonous things. Also plants that can poison or harm the
body and/or mind (for example drugs). Also in this category if some were found
to heal a sick and the same were found  to harm a  healthy person, it is to be
given to  the sick as medicine  for healing and  forbidden from the  others to
save them from harm (talking about medications which can have healing elements
and bad side effects and how even then they recognized such things).

Second, anytime one has doubts about  food or when  others have doubt about it
is not wise to eat it.

6. Add  to these two reason  the saying of Paul the  Apostle in his Epistle to
Romans:  `Him  that is weak in   the  faith receive  ye,   but not to doubtful
disputations.  For one believeth that  he may eat  all things: another, who is
weak, eateth herbs. Let not  him that eateth  despise him that eateth not; and
let  not him which eateth  not judge  him  that eateth: for  God hath received
him. Who art thou that  judgest another man's  servant? to  his own master  he
standeth or falleth. Yea, he shall be  holden up: for God  is able to make him
stand. One man  esteemeth one day  above another: another esteemeth  every day
alike. Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind. He that regardeth the
day, regardeth  it unto the  Lord; and he  that regardeth not  the day, to the
Lord he doth not regard it. He that eateth, eateth to  the Lord, for he giveth
God thanks; and he that eateth not, to the Lord he eateth  not, and giveth God
thanks.' (Romans 14:1-7).

7. Also his  saying in the Epistle to  the Corinthians: `All things are lawful
unto me, but all things are not expedient: all things are lawful for me, but I
will not be brought under the power of any. Meats for the belly, and the belly
for meats: but God  shall destroy both  it and them. Now  the body is not  for
fornication,  but  for  the  Lord; and  the Lord  for  the   body.' (I Corinth
8.  About what was sacrificed to idols, we know that idols are nothing in this
world, and that there  is no God  but the One  God. But the knowledge of these
things is not   given  to everyone, for   this  reason we forbid eating    the
sacrifice to idols, so we do not become a stumbling block. For this reason `if
meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh  while the world standeth,
lest I make my brother to offend ` (I Corinthians 8:13).

9.  Also he  said: `Even as I please  all men in all thing  , not seeking mine
own profit, but the profit of many, that they may be saved.' (I Corinth 10:33)
which also  means:  `All things  are lawful  unto me,  but all things  are not
expedient: all things are lawful for  me, but I will  not be brought under the
power of any.' (I Corinthians 6:12). For this reason we eat everything sold in
the butcher shop, and when you are invited to supper eat everything they offer
in front of you without examination so not  to offend them,  but if it is said
one says this was sacrificed  to idols, do not eat  because  of the desire  to
save the one who said it.

10.  Also he said to Timothy: `Now the Spirit  speaketh expressly, that in the
latter  times  some shall   depart from  the  faith, giving  heed  to seducing
spirits,  and doctrines of  devils; Speaking  lies  in hypocrisy; having their
conscience seared with  a  hot iron; Forbidding  to  marry, and commanding  to
abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of
them which believe and know the truth. For every creature of  God is good, and
nothing to be  refused,  if  it be received   with  thanksgiving: For  it   is
sanctified by the word of God and prayer.' (I Timothy 4:1-5).

11. No food  can defile a bishop  or a priest except  that he can leave it all
for the sake of God.

12. It is proper for all Christians and in particular the priests and monks to
not  desire to have  variety of foods, not  desire  the delicious of foods, or
that  is desirable   because of  soft  touch  or aroma   or  color. But   have
sufficiency in things   that are useful  to the  body  and  commonly available
according to the  season and the place  because the Lord  said  (to Martha) `,
thou art  careful and troubled about many  things: But  one thing is needful:'
(Luke 10:41).

13. Paul following the saying of Christ wrote to Timothy: `And having food and
raiment let us be  therewith content.' (I Timothy  6:8). Also the Lord  warned
about over  eating and drinking  (Matt 24:42-51 and  Luke 12; 41-48).  He also
called  them blessed who  hunger and thirst for the  kingdom of God (Sermon on
the Mount).

                             Concerning Clothing

14. It was mentioned, in many places, concerning cloths  that it is prohibited
to wear the fine and colorful of  it. Also, for  altar service to wear special
white  robe. Also, it is  prohibited for women to wear  men cloths and for men
not to wear women cloths. It is not proper for men to  wear gold rings and for
women to wear golden jewelry nor  fancy cloth. The  ascetics are to wear rough
woolen cloths  or the likes.  When one dresses according to  the  advice it is

15.  One ought  to dress according   to the dress  code of  the region of  his
residence and  according to the code  of his vocation. For  example, it is not
proper for a priest to dress like a soldier or for a physician to dress like a
builder, .. etc.

16.  He who is a disciple (follower) of Christ shall  be careful what to wear,
because the Lord  advised his disciples  to be careful  about what to wear and
not  to vaunt. He also  praised John the Baptist because  of the simplicity of
his dress because John  was not one  to wear fine cloths.  We ought to use  as
examples  to follow  the disciples,  apostles, prophets, and  saints. St. John
Chrysostom said that believers should be known by what they  serve at the food
table, their dress,   their speech, and the   way they walk because our  faith
teaches us what is proper in all these things.

17.  The wise saint Bassellious said: ` We ought to  wear only what covers our
 bodies and protect us from the cold and heat.  To follow this law: The laymen
ought to wear what is commonly  available, and the ascetics  what is not soft.

                              Concerning Housing

18.  As it  is  advised for the  followers  of this  highly regarded  faith to
desire less food and cloth, it is also  advised to do  the same in selecting a
house.  It is sufficient   to seek what protects  from  the elements for which
houses are for.

19.  The  Lord Jesus Christ  who is the  best example for us  to follow had no
house or even a place to rest his head (Matt 11:7-12). See  also Matt 8:20 and
Luke 9:58.  His Apostle Paul praised  those who lived in  caves and  dens `(Of
whom the world  was not worthy:)  they wandered in  deserts, and in mountains,
and in dens and caves  of the earth.'   (Hebrews 11:38).  Chrysostom said that
the houses of  the  strangers and travelers  should be  known and you   should
prepare them as the present need necessitate.

20.  The one who envisions  and desires the  heavenly homes  will not want  to
stay  in  our earthly  houses  for very  long, because   the heavenly  is much
better. Those are the ones who are not affected by the width or the breadth of
this world and will not sorrow for missing the best of this world.

                            Concerning Professions

21.   All professions are acceptable except:  Ones which are  against the laws
(God's Laws)  such  as magic, astrology, idols  making,   sorcery, reading the
stars,  places of  (adult)    entertainment, dancing, (prize) fighting,    and

22.  Paulidis said: Every   maker (of castings) should   know that it   is not
proper to make idols, neither statue nor flat image.

23.  All the makers of manufactured things, after they  are baptized, if found
to make  any of these things  shall be separated (from  the Church) until they

24.  It  is well known  that the above mentioned  industries are not needed by
people, because people can certainly do without it. The appropriate industries
for the Christians are two kinds:

First,  Industries important for   sustaining life, these  are agriculture and
hunting for food, tailoring  for cloths, construction  for building homes, and
medicine for health maintenance and fighting diseases.

Second,  support industries needed to  maintain and/or extend  the purposes of
the above mentioned such as carpentry,  metal works, writing, milling, baking,
bread making, teaching, and merchandising.

25.  Merchandising (trade) could be necessary for moving goods from one region
to another. It also requires shipping and storage.

26.  It is desirable for all these industries to become proficient in the most
basic activities only.    For example, it  is   not proper to   neglect  basic
agriculture in favor of fruits hybrids or flowers over production. Also, it is
not proper to  neglect basic cloth  making in  favor  of dying  and ornamental
cloths. Also, same applies to caring for building  homes instead of caring for
decorating and  enlarging them. This   was  pointed out   by the wise   (John)
Chrysostom in his commentary on the Gospel according to St. Matthew.


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
               Concerning Engagement, Marriage and What Follows
                                  Chapter 24

[This chapter was  very difficult to translate.  The Hegomen  Philothaos Awad,
1886, wrote a footnote as long as the  entire chapter to explain differeces in
approach to marriage laws. There are other changes in approach since then, for
one, more  equity in roles and  obligations of women  For example, dowry is no
longer a condition of marriage.  Cost of Furnishing the  home is shared. Women
are carrying as big a burden as men financially  everywhere. If a woman can be
found guilty of adultery, a man can be  ruled guilty as well.  No body have to
drink  salty (bitter)  water with ashes/dirt  mixed  in it. The Church advices
couples to have a sufficiently long engagement to make sure that they made the
right choice.  ..  etc.]

1.  Before talking about marriage, we need to mention the purpose which is two

First, to have  children to preserve  the human race,   and is evident  in the
Lord's saying to the first grandparents (Adam and Eve): `So God created man in
his own image, in the image of God created he  him; male and female created he
them. And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply,
and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the
sea,  and over the  fowl of the air, and  over every  living thing that moveth
upon the  earth.' (Genesis 1:27-28)  This can't  be without sexual intercourse
and child bearing. The  sexual desire was  implanted  in the animal  nature to
cause the urge to have intercourse which produces birth,  this also results in
the pain caused  by desire and giving birth  (as the Lord  God demonished Adam
and Eve, See Genesis (3:16)).

Second, The help the married couple gives one to the other to reduce the labor
required to go through  life and is  obvious from the  saying of  the Almighty
concerning Adam and Eve: `And the  LORD God said, It is  not good that the man
should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.' (Genesis 2:18).

2. So   the  first   purpose of   marriage  is  giving  birth  to    children,
extinguishing the sexual desire, cooperation, and union.

3.   Marriage is then necessary  for procreation and  also is  honored in many
laws and canons of which we mention three:

4. First, if one  will burn with  sexual desire, it  is better for him to  get
married as the Apostle Paul said: `Now  concerning the things whereof ye wrote
unto me: It  is good for  a man not to touch  a woman.  Nevertheless, to avoid
fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own
husband.  Let the husband render unto  the wife  due benevolence: and likewise
also the wife unto the husband. The  wife hath not  power of her own body, but
the husband: and likewise also the husband hath not power of his own body, but
the wife. Defraud ye not one the other, except it  be with consent for a time,
that ye  may give yourselves to fasting  and prayer; and  come together again,
that Satan tempt you not for  your incontinency.' (I Corinthians 7:1-5). Also,
he said about the young widows in his epistle to  Timothy that he desires that
they marry and give birth to children than roaming around with no purpose (See
Timothy 5).

5. Second, Celibacy is for those who can escape temptation. They do so by good
temperament, good  habits,  and special calling:  `Let every  man abide in the
same calling wherein he was called. Art thou called  being a servant? care not
for it: but if thou mayest be made free, use it rather.  For he that is called
in the Lord, being a servant, is the Lord's freeman:  likewise also he that is
called, being free, is Christ's servant. Ye are bought with a price; be not ye
the servants  of men. Brethren, let every  man, wherein  he is called, therein
abide with God. Now concerning virgins I have  no commandment of the Lord: yet
I  give my judgment,  as  one that   hath obtained mercy   of  the Lord to  be
faithful. I  suppose therefore that this  is good for  the present distress, I
say, that it is good for a man so to be. Art thou  bound unto a wife? seek not
to be loosed.  Art thou loosed  from a wife? seek not  a wife. But and if thou
marry, thou  hast  not sinned; and  if a  virgin  marry, she  hath not sinned.
Nevertheless such shall have trouble in the flesh: but I spare you. But this I
say, brethren, the time is short: it remaineth, that both they that have wives
be as though they had none;....' (I Corinth 7:20-38)
6. In the above, the  Apostle followed the  purpose  of the  Lord in his  pure
saying in the Gospel According to St. Matthew: `His disciples say unto him, If
the case of the man be so with his wife, it is not  good to marry. But he said
unto  them, All  men cannot  receive  this saying,  save they   to whom  it is
given. For there  are some eunuchs,  which  were so  born from  their mother's
womb: and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men: and there be
eunuchs,  which have made  themselves   eunuchs for  the  kingdom  of heaven's
sake. He that is able to receive i , let him  receive it.' (Matthew 19:10-12).
Also  see the Lord's  sayings  about those  who  left behind fathers, mothers,
sisters, brothers, wife, children, that they shall  receive 100 fold reward in
this age and eternal life in the age to come (Matt 19:10-29, Mark 10:29-, Luke

7. Third, marriage is then permitted for those of  two groups above mentioned,
meaning those who do not want to burn by desire and those who are not relieved
from it!!!!!! as the Apostles' saying indicates: ` But and if thou marry, thou
hast not sinned; and if a virgin marry, she hath not sinned. Nevertheless such
shall have trouble in the flesh: but I spare you.' ( I Corinthians 7:28).

8.  Marriage is  honorable and the bedroom is clean (Hebrews 13:4).

9.  Marriage after taking the vow of celibacy is not clean.

10.  Everyone who was celibate and change is like one who married twice.

11.  Speaking  about celibacy  is  like his  first  marriage, But   the second
marriage is not the  same honor as the first  as in the  laws of  marriage, he
does  not get the  blessings of the sacrament  but the  prayer of forgiveness.
Bassellious said:   `if turtle doves, non-speaking  (animal),  does not go for
second  marriage; how can a  speaking animal (humans) go  for second marriage.
It is not desirable to do so, especially for the (married) clergy, for them it
is not acceptable at all!

12. Concerning a third  marriage, it is unacceptable  at  all, we do not  even
consider it legal.

13.  Having more  than  one wife  at the same   time is illegal. It  is public

14.  From what mentioned above, the purpose of marital intercourse is to avoid
the pain of  sexual desire  and to  seek off-spring  who are  to worship God. 

15. We ought  not  to accept  for marriage,  a partner whom  we do  not  know,
because there might be a concern about  their behavior (toward the other) once
the desire is satisfied, put under control, or even gone away!

16. Most of    what is  said in this    chapter comes  from  the  laws  called
`Tatalassat'  first to eleventh  chapter .  (I  don't know what  he is talking
about!!!! help is needed)

17.  The purposes of marriage are three as mentioned above, they are according
to the purpose of the creator and those who followed his  purpose.  It is hard
to find (a sincere) one who has a single purpose only.  Example, one who wants
marriage for having  children only, otherwise  they would not have intercourse
after knowing that his wife is pregnant which is seldom  the case. Also, it is
not conceivable that  marriage is for  cooperation only, otherwise they  would
not have intercourse which is also unheard of.

18.  Marriage according to the  desire of other (ungodly)   people can be  for
many reasons other than the three we mentioned.

19.  Some marry for pleasure only. Those do  not care about having children or
cooperation, but they even go as  far as preventing pregnancy through measures
for themselves or their spouses and do not care  to consider the other reasons
to the point   of  choosing a   wife  for appearance without   considering her
reputation or family's repution. For those, we hope that their purposes change
after a while.

20.  Some desire  to gain fortune through  marriage, for that they also ignore
inquiring about reputation or family reputation.

21.  Some are forced to marriage at a young age by parents or guardians who do
not take into consideration maturity or choice thinking that  by doing so they
save their  children from falling into  sexual  temptation or insuring  a good
financial position and sometimes they do it because they  like to enjoy seeing
their off-spring married before they depart or they do it out of pride or as a
spiteful act.

22.  Some  jokingly marry because  they like to have  someone  to inherit them
(with no concern for whom they marry).

23. All  these reasons for marriage more  or less are attributed to satisfying
(fleshly) desire. Hardly there is other reasons.

24.    Many   cover the   purpose of    bodily desire   by  claiming  need for
cooperation.  A wise man was right  in saying that desire of  the flesh is the
mother of all evil,  all hardship, and all insults.  It is truly the mother of
all bodily  and psychic pains because  it  makes the  unnecessary things as if
they are very necessary. For this we ask the Lord's help, protection, support,
and mercy. Amen.

                            Concerning Engagement

25.  Engagement is not proper for one found to be not fit for marriage.

26.  The engaged is free  to do so if  he is not  under custody (of full age).
Otherwise, it has to be done by the approval of the custodian/guardian.

27.  There  are   fifteen reasons that  prevent   marriage,  those are to   be
considered before engagement takes place, they are:

28. (First: Relatives marriage) that is not according to the law:

[Man is forbidden to marry: Grandmother, one  who married his grandfather, the
grandmother of one whom he  married, his aunt  (father side), his aunt (mother
side), one who  married  his uncle (father side),  one  who married his  uncle
(mother side), sister  of his wife's father,  sister of his wife's mother, his
mother, one who was married  to his father, mother  of his wife, his daughter,
his  wife's daughter, his   son's wife,  his  sister,  his wife's  sister, his
brother's wife, daughter of  his son, daughter  of his  daughter, wife of  his
grandson, wife of son  of his daughter, daughter of  son of his wife, daughter
of daughter of his wife, daughter of his son,  daughter of his sister, wife of
his nephew (brother side), wife of his nephew  (sister side), daughter of wife
brother, daughter of wife sister.]

[Woman is forbidden to marry: Grandfather, husband of grandmother, grandfather
of husband, uncle (father side), uncle (mother side),  husband of aunt (father
side), husband of aunt (mother side), uncle  of her husband (his father side),
uncle of her husband (his mother side),  father, husband of her mother, father
of her husband, son, son of husband, husband of her daughter, brother, brother
of husband,   husband of  sister, grandson   (son  of son), grandson   (son of
daughter),  husband  of    granddaughter  (daughter  of     son), husband   of
granddaughter  (daughter of daughter), son of  son of husband, son of daughter
of husband, son  of brother, son of  sister,  husband of daughter  of brother,
husband of daughter  of sister, son  of her husband  brother, son of sister of

29. In general three groups of forbidden marriages as follows:

29.1 parents and grandparents and what is above,
29.2 children, grandchildren and what is below,
29.3 uncles, aunts, bothers and their children, sisters and their children and
all side relations like that, because those also are related because they come
from same parents and/or grandparents.

30. There is two opinions  among Copts about the degree  of relative which are
eligible to marry:

First   Opinion:  Forbid three  relations   and  approve  of  fourth  relation
marriage.  This is according  to the council  of Nicea and  many of the common
laws agreed to and which were approved by many head priests over the years and
is followed in Coptic, Syrian and Nestorian  Churches. This was also necessary
when the   numbers of Christians  dwindled  in certain   regions and it became
necessary to marry  close relations such as  cousins marriage to avoid falling
into temptation  and more important to keep  people from leaving the faith for
marital necessities. Fourth relation  includes  cousins, this is explained  as
follows: my grandparents  (second relation)  gave  birth  of my  uncle  (third
relation), uncles children are then fourth relation and it is legal to marry a
cousin then.

Second   Opinion: The  followers  of the   king  (Mallakites follower  of King
Marcian) forbade sixth relation marriages  and approved seventh relation. This
opinion makes cousins  marriage forbidden. This  is not acceptable  to us (the
Copts), and also  to some of them  and  because of their dwindling  numbers in
certain regions, some of them violated the rule without distinguishing any.

[Note:   when relatives of a spouse   are mentioned, it   means a second legal
marriage like in the case of death of first spouse]

31.  The calculation leading to  fourth relation is  explained by the legality
of (first) cousin marriage  as  follows: My father   begat me, my  grandfather
begat my father, that  is two relations. My grandfather  begat my uncle, third
relation, and my uncle begat my cousins, fourth relation.

32. Marriage of (spiritual) relatives  through babptism (Nicean Council Cannon
23, 25) The one who  accepts one in baptism as  sister can not marry her,  and
she cannot mary him and they become like brother and sister  who can not marry
the  father  and mother, sister  and  brother, son  and daughter  of the other
person.  They became relative  through spiritual  bond and  any marriage among
them   is forbidden  and  they become   as  idolators or  publicans until they

[The  publisher disputes  this rule because   their  should be no  such thing,
because he states that childhood and parenthood is normal  through birth only.
Other (spiritual) relations are no consideration in marriage]

33.  It was mentioned in the laws of  spiritual parenting (eshpeens) that they
become spiritual parents   when  they  become  eshpeens,  but  such  parenting
relations are  not  followed   in  forbading  marriage   of relatives.   (this
contradicts rule 32 above).

34.  (Part Three: relations  through nursing): Relations through circumstances
like  raising a person   (adoption) or nursing  a child.  The adoptive parents
become like mother  and father. For  this  reason, one can  not marry  one who
raised him/her or their children because they become like brothers and sister,
or their parents because they become like granparents, this is in the Malakite
laws.  But in the  Descolias  (laws of the  Apostle)  it is  permitted for  an
adopted or nursed to marry the off-spring of  those who adopted/nursed him/her
.. etc.

35.  (Part  Four: Marriage to  relatives through marriage, not through birth):
Those are  the parents of spouses, or  grandparents of spouses  (off-course we
are now speaking about  second marriages). Their  sisters and brothers parents
and grandparents.  Spouses of children and  their children, brothers, sisters,
fathers and mothers,  grandparents. And  spouses of  brothers and sisters  and
their children and  their brothers and sisters,  parents and grandparents. And
relatives  of  the wife,  her  grandmother, mother, aunts,  sisters, daughter,
daughter of  her son, and wives  of her relatives in this  level of  relation.
Are all forbidden for a woman to  marry. What is  forbidden for woman likewise
is forbidden for man (same kind relation).

36.  (Part Five:  Marrying  the  Guardian/Custodian)  is  also  forbidden. The
guardian, his siblings and  his  brother are  forbidden for the  adopted/cared
for.  This  is only  until she  reaches 26 years  of  age  and if the guardian
satisfied all  that he is required  to do, they   can marry if she  accepts to
marry him.

37. (Part Six): It does not look good that one marries the wife of his master.

38.  (Part  Seven):  It is not   desirable for believer   to marry unbeliever,
except  according  to what  was mentioned  in the  appropriate  books (see the
epistles of St. Paul).

39.  (Part   Eight): Not proper  to marry  if there  is  what  prevents sexual
inercourse like illness preventing sexual  intercourse, the Eunchs, and  those
who have both the organs of male and female in the  same body (tranvestites!).
Also those who have one of the following reasons are not to marry:

39.1 Casteration,
39.2  Persistant Madness, meaning that is not treatable, not curable,
39.3 Harmeful diseases like Elephantiasis, but  one who has leporcy can marry
if the other accepts.

                           What Nullifies Marriage

40.  (Part Nine):  Woman  who was caught   in sin (fornication) or  previously

41.  (Part Ten): Having more than one wife.

42. (Part Eleven): Fourth marriage or more.

43.  (Part Twelve): Marrying a Nun.
44.  (Part Thirteen): Woman that is Sixty or  Older.
(This is disputed by the publisher as not valid reason. We also see no reason
for such rule)

45. (Part Fourteen); Marriage that followed the death  of husband by less than
the year  of mourning, and to  be exact 10 months after  the death of previous
husband. This  can also cause one to  loose the inheritance  from the previous
husband (because of the need to prove parenthood  in case of conception in the
first year  following the death of  previous husband).  This prevents marriage
but does not prevent formal Church performed engagement.

46.  (Part Fifteen):  Forcing one  of  the partners to  marriage  which is two

First:  Bringing one of  the parties to marriage  by force makes both marriage
and the marriage contract null and  void. This however should  not be the rule
for engagement, because during engagement they might get to accept each other.

Second: It is unlawful for a ruler or one of his siblings  or one of his aides
to  force a  person to  marriage,  the marriage  will  be null  and void. This
however should not be the rule for engagement (as explained above).

47. If  one after being  engaged and receiving a  dowry/gift decides to become
celibate.  It is acceptable to break  the engagement, and  not go through with
the marriage,  only after the dowry/gift  is returned back  (to  the donor) in
48.  Engagement,  even  wedding ceremony, shall  precede  the consummation  of
marriage with sufficient time  to be sure that  each accepts the  other fully,
and  that the love  through  complete content is  true.  And  let the  one who
accepts wait for the marriage and control himself and  not hurry. Let the hope
for  a pure marriage  a motivation for keeping the  chastity and to expend the
energy  in the effort  to prepare for the marriage  and to increase the desire
for the other. Let us follow  the Lord's wisdom, it is  not good for man to be
alone (He  prepared for Adam  before bringing on  Eve). He promised first then
made the promise to happen, become reality.

                               Aakd Al-Amlaak
                          (Limits and Conditions)

49. Al-Amlaak is a promise to marry and a date to do  so. It can be written or
unwritten (oral communications).

50.  It  is made certain by  the presence of two  of the elders of the priests
whereas they place the cross and the  ring on top of  the dowry (maahrr). They
write  a contract  by the  consent  of the two who  are   to be connected  (in
marriage). Also, if one  or the other under  custody,  it is also through  the
consent of the custodian  even  if the custodian was   not biological parent. 

51. It  is permissible to marry without  dowry or furniture (customary even to
this day to agree on who pays for what in furnishing the home of the newly wed
as part of the marriage agreement).

52.  Mourning a  previous husband does  not prevent having a marriage contract
drafted. The parties can not have a  contract if one  is less than seven years
of age!

53.  If one has  a  marriage contract without setting   marriage date,  it  is
(customary) to  wait two years. If  one was on travel,  it can be three years.
If that  time passes it can be  considered null and void.  Both sides can look
for   another. But if  there is  a strong   reason like illness,   or debt, or
imprisonment, or being away for  a strong reason; it is  possible to wait four
years. Parent or custodian can not dissolve the agreement,  it requires one of
the parties in the marriage to do so.

54.  If the  two seeking marriage were orphans,  without father and mother and
were under  the age of fifteen  and had a contract, they   can not dissolve it
 until they reach  the age of maturity (age  15),  at which  time they can  do
what they desire (this is  intended to give an  opportunity to make a rational

55.  Every maiden by her father's choice or her own choice has an agreement to
marry  one and  was  forced to marital  relation  by  another, through  force,
abduction or rape, has to marry the one that  she was promised to first unless
he  chooses not  to go ahead   with the marriage. In  the   case of  the first
refusing  to marry her, the  abductor has to  marry her if  he  is not married

56.  If one of the  parties reneged on marriage  contract, has to return twice
what he received. But if the one that paid reneged, he has to forfeit what was
paid. In case of death of one of the parties, there are two rules:

First, The one who received returns what he received to the family of the dead
unless if the dead person was cause of delay,

Second, If  the woman dies,  her family is  obligated to  return all that they
received. If the man dies, and has no one to inherit him, the woman keeps what
he gave. But if he has those  who can inherit, she  keeps half and returns the
other half to them if the contract was legal.

57.   What  the father agreed   to shall be carried on,   but if the father or
mother took the down payment and changed their  mind, they shall return double
the amount.  But if  they  are not able to   pay double, they at  least should
return what they received.  The same applies if a  custodian received the down

58. To become full of age  and in complete control of  his situation a man has
to be between the ages of twenty and twenty five. But for females they have to
be  between eighteen   and twenty five   years of  age.  (Having   a  range is
confusing. In our times it is a fixed age for both  men and women, eighteen in
most countries. Sometimes age 21).

59. When  they reach the legal age,  they can ask the ruler  of  the region to
remove all custodians, and they can do  what pleases them  and it is their own

60.   If after engagement,  dowry, and legal  contract,  it was found that the
marriage can  not take  place because he  follows  another  faith, or  extreme
neglect of the faith, or breaking the  commandments, they shall be allowed not
to marry but they have to return what they  received. But if  it is found that
they  had pre knowledge of  the situation  before hand  they must  pay double.

[Breaking of engagement  is  reluctantly accepted  by   the Church as  a  wise
decision before a bad marriage takes place. It is customary to return valuable
gifts and  jewelry. Furniture also returns  to  the one who   paid for it, but
dowry is no longer a common practice, and marriage contract is now part of the
wedding procedure]

                     Concerning Gifts Before Marriage:

61.  Every gift other  than food returns to the  man if  the marriage does not
take place.

62. But if the man was the one who refused to go through  with the marriage he
loses everything he offered. But  if she is  the one that refused, she  should
return everything including gifts and dowry.

63.  Gifts are to the fiancee to  the day of marriage  if the gift is given in
her home. But if the gift is given in the home of the  newly weds from wedding
day on, it is a wife's gift and not a fiancee  gift. The man's adversaries can
not get what he gave as engagement gift.

64.  The woman can give  from the dowry  to her husband's adversaries, but not
from the engagement gifts.

  Concerning Parents and the marriage of their Children, Same for Custodians

65.  It is not lawful for a man to force his child to marry if the child has a
good reputation (knows what  he is doing),  but if he is not  he is advised to
not refuse.

66.  If  parents desire to get  daughter or granddaughter  to marry by helping
pay for the furniture and she refuses, she deserves to live  in bad repute and
looses the right of inheritance.

67.  It is not proper for children to refuse marriage causing their parents to
loose the furniture and the engagement gifts.

68.  If parents or  custodians refuse to help those  in their custody unfairly
by refusing to pay for the  furniture, it is up to  those in authority to make
them do what is necessary for marriage to take place.

69.  If a woman is past 25 years of age and  her parents did not try earnestly
to  help her, she  can ask  those in  authority to  force  them to do what  is

70.  If a woman is of full age and wants to marry according to the
commandments, let her marry even if  her parents refuse. This goes for men as

71.  If a man is a prisoner of war for more than three years, his children can
marry without his approval  even if it was  known that he  will not approve of
the  marriage (because he  was absent for more  than  three years).  If he was
absent less than three year  the marriage is not  proper if he  objects to it.

72.  If the father is not of sound mind,  the grandfather approval can be used
in place of  the father's.  But if  the woman is  of full  age  and her father
disapproves, it is up to those in authority to decide.

73.  If the one she chooses  and the one her  parents choose are equal in race
and financial ability, it is done according to her opinion.

74.  If the  relatives  disagree about the choice   regarding marriage for  an
orphaned relative, those in authority can make the choice.

75.  A guardian on the trust of an orphan, has  no say concerning marriage, if
the guardianship is on finances only.

76.  Mourning the departed father or  grandfather does not constitute a reason
for not completing (a promised) marriage.

                          Terms of Marriage Contract

77.  First: Terms: Marriage is an agreement between a man and a woman. It is a
public agreement in  front  by the witness  of  the priests and through  their
prayers. Marriage   is  a joining  of  the  livelihood of the  partners  which
produces  a better ability to  satisfy  their needs and  a  means of producing
off-spring to follow them.

78.   Second: Who Should Engage  in Marriage: Marriage   should not take place
unless the two who desire to marry are in  agreement, and if under custody the
custodian/guardian has to agree.  Marriage should be  between two of full age,
the man should  be over 14 years  of age and  the woman over  12 years of age.
One who is brought to marriage under 12 years of age is  married in the law if
she accepts the man!

79.  One should not have the marriage ceremony in secret, but  to have many in

80.  Marriage Certification  can not  and  should not be completed  unless the
priest is present. He   also should offer the   Qurbaan (meaning  perform  the
prayers of the sacrament of holy matrimony) by which  they become one flesh as
the Lord, may His  name  be praised, said. Without  the  prayers they are  not
considered married.  Since through prayer she is  absolved to marry him and he
is absolved to marry her.

81.  Third, There are eleven major rules  concerning marriage. The first major
set of rules  has five sub-rules:  First, concerning first marriage which  was
covered previously.

82.  Second, second marriage  for men is permissible  if there is no obstacle,
and  if they  have young  children  they have to  care  for them  and  do what
appropriate about their having their lawful inheritance.

83.  If a priest marries for the second time  he looses his rank (priesthood).

84.  For  woman who promised  celibacy, it  is against the  law to  marry, not
because of the intercourse, but because they would be committing a lie against
the Creator.

85.  A widowed woman over 60 years of age who marries a second time is like an
evil doer.

86.  A  woman is committed to her  husband as long as  he is alive. But  if he
dies, she can marry again but blessed is she if she does not.

87.  If the newly wed  are widowed, they shall  not receive the holy matrimony
blessings (prayer) because this was given to them  previously and it stays for
ever (can not be  repeated). Instead, the priest shall  pray for them a prayer
of repentance. But if one of the two is receiving the marriage prayers for the
first time, he or she shall be blessed alone.

88. If one marries a second time, she shall ask her children permission before
she gets married. She also has  to separate what is theirs  from what is hers.

89.  One who is under 25 years  of age who is  going for a second marriage has
to get the approval of  her parents/guardians. But if  the father is dead, the
approval of her relatives. If they do not  agree, those in authority will have
to approve. If  the one she is  to choose between their  selection and one she
selected, and  if they both equally qualified  her choice shall  be the one to

90.  Third,  Third  marriage  is a  sign of  falling   into temptation and  is
despised by the Church.

91. Fourth,  What   is  beyond third   marriage    is  public fornication.

92.  Who dares to commit fourth marriage should not be considered married, the
children of such marriage  are not to  be considered legitimate. He should  be
treated as a fornicator and they should be separated.

93.   Fifth, according to  the council of Nicea, one  should not be married to
two women  at  the same time.  One who  does that  shall   be denied the  holy
Eucharist  and should not  be allowed to enter the  Church  until he lives the
second (woman) and returns to the first.

94.  If one has two wives under one  roof or in separate  residences or if one
has a wife and a mistress he shall be separated from the Church, and if he had
a rank of priesthood, he shall be separated from the priesthood.

95.  A woman  who falls in love  with another man while  her husband  is still
alive, is an adulterous and is considered in violation of the commandments.

96.   Part Two: The believer   can marry a  woman  who  is un-believer on  the
condition that  she joins  the  faith.  A  woman  believe shall not   marry an
un-believer because of fear that he will convert her to his faith.

97.  Every woman who marry an un-believer shall  be separated from the society
until she leaves  the un-believer and  after she proves  her repentance she is
given the Eucharist.

98.  Any believer who forces sister or daughter to  marry an un-believer shall
be separated from society and not allowed to socialize  with the believers for
(for what  he did) but she  is not to be blamed  because she was forced to the
marriage.  If  he repents  and gets  her  released of her  marriage he  can be
brought back to the group after a period of  repentance based on the magnitude
of his mis conduct.

99.  If a  brother has a wife   who is an  un-believer and  she  desires no to
depart he is advised not to leave her. Also, if a woman believer has a husband
who is an un-believer and he desires  to stay with her, let  her not leave him
because  (as  the  Apostle   said)   the un-believer  is sanctified    in  the
believer. But if the un-believer desires to depart let him depart.

100.  Part Three: The period for one to not marry again after the departure of
a spouse: There are two opinions:

First, It is not lawful to marry before a year  passes, otherwise the survivor
is not permitted to receive any inheritance from the deceased.

Second, A woman is not allowed to marry again for 10 months after the death of
her spouse, and  if she does she is  not permitted to receive  any inheritance
from the deceased and has disgraced herself.

101. Part Four:  If a man is in  financial hardship because  of the  gifts and
dowry he presented to his future spouse,  she becomes obligated to support the
man and their off-spring from what she already received.

102.  Part  Five: If a  man pawns any item belonging  to  his wife without her
permission, his action is unlawful. But if out  of need, he  asks her to allow
it and she refuses, she has forfeit her right to support because she prevented
a  necessary action because  the commandments help those  who are deceived but
does not help those who are spiteful.

103.  Part  Six: Divorcee  is  not permitted except for  previously  mentioned
reasons  for voiding marriage. This  is because of  the  witness of the Gospel
according to St. Matthew: `The Pharisees also came unto him, tempting him, and
saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife  for every cause?
And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that  he which made them
at the beginning made them male and female,  And said, For  this cause shall a
man leave father  and  mother, and shall cleave  to  his wife: and they  twain
shall  be one flesh?  Wherefore they are  no more twain,   but one flesh. What
therefore God hath joined  together, let  not man put  asunder. They  say unto
him, Why did Moses  then command to give a  writing of divorcement, and to put
her  away? He saith unto  them, Moses because of the  hardness  of your hearts
suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so. And
I say unto  you,  Whosoever  shall  put away  his   wife,  except it   be  for
fornication, and shall marry another,  committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth
her which is put away doth commit adultery.'  (Matt 19:3-9)
104.  The Apostle Paul in Corinthians said: `But to  the rest speak I, not the
Lord: If  any brother hath a wife  that believeth not,  and she be  pleased to
dwell with him, let him not put her away. And the  woman which hath an husband
that believeth not, and if he be pleased to dwell with her,  let her not leave
him.  For the  unbelieving  husband  is  sanctified  by   the wife,  and   the
unbelieving  wife  is  sanctified by  the  husband:  else  were  your children
unclean; but  now  are they  holy.   But if the  unbelieving  depart,  let him
depart. A brother or a sister is not under bondage in such cases: but God hath
called us to peace. For what knowest thou, O wife, whether thou shalt save thy
husband? or how knowest  thou, O man, whether  thou  shalt save thy wife?'  (I
Corinthians 7:12-16)

105. Part Seven:  Forbidding    Them From Denying Each  Other   Companionship:
According to St. Paul,  a man has  to give his wife what   is due her  and the
woman likewise:  `Let the husband  render unto  the  wife due benevolence: and
likewise also the  wife unto the  husband. The wife  hath not power of her own
body, but the husband: and likewise also the husband hath not power of his own
body, but  the wife. Defraud  ye not one the  other, except it be with consent
for a time,   that ye may give  yourselves  to fasting  and prayer;  and  come
together     again, that Satan   tempt you    not  for your  incontinency.' (I
Corinthians 7:3-5)

106: Part Eight: On the days on which they should not get together (have sex):
The holy days of fasting should not be defiled by sex, also you should not get
close to her (have  sex) on the days  of her blood   (period), and the  period
following giving  birth because  you will be  forcing her  to do  what  is not
proper. Remember what the Lord ordered the Israelites through Moses: `And if a
man shall lie with   a  woman having her   sickness,  and shall  uncover   her
nakedness; he   hath  discovered her  fountain,  and  she  hath  uncovered the
fountain  of her blood: and both   of them shall be cut   off from among their
people.'  (Leviticus 20:18)

107.  Woe to those who commit such sin in paschal week.

108.  Marriage which was ordained by God  for the Israelites  was not only for
producing off-spring but also for the needs of the  flesh which was made to be
controlled  through the commandments so that  there  are times to get together
and times for abstaining so not to become morally decadent.

109.  But abstaining during  the time of  the period following giving birth is
for the protection of your bodies from sickness and to avoid having off-spring
born with disease (caused by improper use) such as leprosy  and the likes. But
abstaining  during fasting seasons is  because intercourse will break the fast
and  you need  to complete the  commandment. This  is for  you  forbidding the
animal nature from animal like desire. And  by abstaining you are providing to
the vocal soul which  is united in your flesh  its spiritual needs. So,  it is
ordained for everyone to abstain on the days of the issue  of blood to protect
the body and off-spring. And to abstain in the paschal week for  it is days of
sorrow and fasting and prayers.  And during the fasting  seasons because it is
days of self control and we would rather fight the flesh's desire than succumb
to it.  But according to   St. John Crysostom do  not  do that to  each  other
spitefully because it can lead to adultery.

110.   Part   Nine:  Forbidding Separation  and  its  equivalents  like Mental

The first is  because the first purpose  of marriage is  maintaining the human
race,  so separation  will  work against the   desire  to have  off-spring and
maintaining the human race.

111.  The second is because the Lord said in the torah that if a man separates
himself from his  wife he is  not saved from  murdering a soul.  You also know
what Onan  the son of Judah  did not do for  his brother's wife,  for that the
Lord caused him to die (Genesis 38:8).

112.  John Crysostom  said in explaining  the Gospel according to St. Matthew:
They actively labor  to not bear fruit  (children) and this  is more evil than
not having any.  This includes   taking the  seed  out and  throwing it   away
(abortion) and taking medications to prevent pregnancy.

113.  Part Ten: Those Who Accuses A Spouse Falsely: If one of you takes a wife
and despises her so he  will start to falsely accuse  her of things and starts
saying that he did not find her virgin and if her father  proves what was said
is false accusations, the  man shall be blamed and  punished for his crime and
she shall become his wife if he likes it or not until one of them dies. But if
what he said about her was proven to be true,  they shall be separated and she
shall be called wicked  and no one is  to marry her and  she shall stay in her
house sad and weeping because she committed adultery and disgraced her father.

114.  Any  man advised by the people  that his wife  committed adultery, shall
ask that she is  brought in front  of the  priests. The  priest shall  bring a
pottery  vessel fill it with  salty water and ....  The priest shall ask he to
swear by the  altar and the power of  the Holy Spirit that she  is innocent ..
If she swore  and is innocent she  shall return to  her husband happy, and her
husband  shall  receiver her   happy, otherwise if  she  swore  falsely she is
condemned because she lied.  ......

115.  Part Eleven: Concerning Knowledge of  Events the Precede Marriage: It is
not proper for one to think  that marriage is a  sin or an unclean act because
what God  created male and  female is very good and  both male and  female are
good and  beautiful creation of  God. Those who  call  for forbidding marriage
shall be separated unless their intention is to live a celibate life.

116. Those who mock marriage and call the marital intercourse unclean shall be

117.  One   who  leaves his wife   and calls   marriage  uncleanness shall  be

118.  It is unlawful for women who have  issue of blood  (period) or the blood
of giving birth to  enter the Church. And  it is unlawful  for a woman in this
condition  to enter the Church    even if she  was  the  daughter  of a king. 

119.   The woman who  gave   birth can  not   approach the  holy place   (have
communion) for forty days  if she gave birth to  a boy and  eighty days if the
new born is a  girl. Midwives or those who  receive the child are unclean  for
twenty days if the baby is a boy and forty days if it was a girl.

120.  It is  commanded to separate  the adulterous and  the  married woman who
commits adultery if her  husband was not  aware of her actions.  But if he was
aware and did not prevent it they both are separated.

121.  If the husband was a  priest, he looses his rank.  And if he repents, he
can receive communion after repentance but not the rank of priesthood.

122.  If the wife  of a priest marries  again after his  death, she has shamed
her husband and caused her self to go down from a higher rank.

Part Six: What Makes A Marriage Null and Void:

123. First, if both elect celibacy by free will.

124.  Second, if one of the parties abstains  from marital intercourse because
he chooses  celibacy after marriage, because  by doing so the abstaining party
is not satisfying   one of the main  purposes  of marriage, meaning  having an
off-spring through  intercourse.  Also if  one is  absent for   many years for
whatever reason.

125.  Third, what prevents  achieving the second  reason for marriage  meaning
cooperation on achieving good living which can be:

A) Because of adultery committed by either one,

B) What adultery will bring to  the marriage: First, it  will spoil the living
situation because one of the parties no longer can care for the other and also
for the children as well because his cares are for the outsider. Also, because
the man will not be sure if the  off-spring is his or  somebody else's and one
wants a stranger to inherit him. Also, the  off-spring of this relation rather
inherit the true father. Also, there is the fear of someone getting killed for
revenge and/or jealousy.
C) By staying together  under these conditions is  a continuation of an unfair

124:  Laws Concerning the Three  Situation Above Mentioned: First, Marriage is
null and void when both parties choose celibacy.

125.  Second, Marriage is null and void if the man is not  able to perform the
duties of sexual intercourse for a period of  three years or more. The woman's
parents can ask for the marriage to be made null and  void if there is a proof
of   the situation. In  this   case the woman   keeps  the furniture. But  the
engagement gifts should be returned in full.

126.  If a man discovers that the one he married is not complete in her sexual
organs as a one should be and if he confirmed that three times and confides in
the priest with  his findings, the  bishop is  obligated to separate  them and
make the marriage null and void (as if it did not happen).  The man is free to
marry again, but  the  woman  shall be  prevented from  marrying   again.  Her
guardian also is to be denied the holy Eucharist until he  repents, if he knew
of her condition and did  offer her for marriage. But  if he continues in  his
bad actions, he shall be separated.

127.  Concerning Seizures and Mental Diseases: Two Opinions:

(1) First, If one finds his wife having seizures caused  by mental disease and
if  the illness happened  after the  marriage, he  should  accept her and have
patience with her and he is  not allowed to marry  another. But if the illness
existed  before the marriage and  was hidden from  him, he is allowed to leave
her  and marry another.  She can keep the  dowry and furniture and every thing
she brought into the marriage.   But if she  brought cattle  or slaves, he  is
entitled to half of the produce that resulted after the marriage if he chooses
to leave her.  Also if any of the  furniture was unusable  she should be given
the fare value, but  if he wrote a  rust to her after the  marriage he  is not
obligated to pay what is promised in the trust.

(2) Second, If the seizures  occurred after the  marriage and if he chooses he
can   let her leave  and if  he does so    she is entitled   to  her dowry and
furniture.  But if the  illness existed  before the marriage   and he was  not
informed and if he wants  to  leave her  he can  but he has   to give her  the
furniture but what he gave her as money should return to him.

128: Concerning Leprosy: Two Opinions:

(1)  First, if one of them  has leprosy or like disease  after marriage, it is
not permitted for the other partner to leave,

(2)  Second,  If one marries and  she  develops leprosy or  like disease after
marriage,  it is permitted for him  to leave. She  gets to  keep everything he
gave her before marriage, and if he is able financially he is required to gave
her financial support because what befall them was not by her choice or his.

129.  It is  commanded to make the  marriage of one who  is a prisoner  of war
null and void  if it is not clear  that he is  in the  hands  of the enemy  or
dead. But if it is clear that he  is alive, we ask  her to wait 5 years before
the  marriage is declared null  and void. The  one  that request the annulment
shall give up furniture and marriage gifts.

130.  If some are enlisted in the army, we command that for the years they are
in the battle field that their  wives have patience and wait  for them. But if
the news of the death of a soldier arrives, do not act on the news until it is
verified  by the leaders of the  army. She or   her parents or close relatives
shall meet with the leaders and inquire diligently and if  it is true that the
person died or was killed she shall take a whatever written proof and take the
Bible as a witness and swore that the news is verified.   She then has to wait
for a full year before marrying again. If she follows that her second marriage
is lawful  .  But if  she did  through false  witness  claim the death  of the
spouse, the false witnesses shall be removed from their positions and fined 10
pounds  of gold to be given  to him because they lied   concerning him. If her
first husband chooses, he can have her back as wife.

131.  About Adultery:

(1) First, Women Adultery:   If a man  discovers  that his wife  is committing
adultery, he has to prove that she committed adultery. Afterwards, she and the
man she committed adultery  with shall be punished. Her  marriage is  null and
void  and she is required to  return everything she  received. He keeps it all
unless there are children in which case they are entitled to  half. Also he is
entitled to one third of  her wealth as a compensation.  The man she committed
adultery with also looses his marriage and all the dowry and furniture goes to
his wife unless there children because they are entitled to half that, but the
before marriage gifts are all hers.

132. (2) Second, Other Situations Considered as Adultery: If  a woman goes out
with  men   to drink or hunt    without the approval of  her   husband, she is
committing adultery. Also,  if she sleeps  outside her husband's  home without
his permission, except if the place is her parents or if he was the reason for
her staying out.

133.  The unlawful acts mentioned previously in parts one through fourteen but
not five and six are considered like adultery.

133.  (3) Third, It is  considered like adultery if  one conspires against the
life of the other or if a man conspires against the Chastity of his wife.

134.  If one marries and  argument perpetrated by he  starts, we advice him to
be patient and kind until  she comes back to her  good behavior. But if he can
no longer accept the situation let him ask the archpriest to intervene. If she
does  not listen to the  archpriest, ask the bishop  to intervene. If she does
not listen to the bishop, the bishop shall shake even  the dust from his shoes
at her door.   At this point, it  is  lawful for the  man  remarry. But if  he
chooses he  can stay single, and if  he is righteous  he is permitted  to join
monastic life. But if it was found out that he is  the one that instigated the
trouble because he does not like her, he is commanded to stay with her. But if
he leaves her, he is not permitted to receive the Eucharist.

135.  If a man conspires on the life of his wife  or her chastity by action or
by hiring others to  do such things.  And after it is proven  that he did such
thing,  she is free to  leave him and  remarry lawfully  if  she wants. She is
entitled to   gifts, dowry,  and furniture, and   a fare  amount  of his other
positions. If they do not  have children, she takes all  these things, but  if
they have  children,  he keeps  all  his other positions  for  the care of the

136. If  a  man was found with   another woman in his house   or was known  to
frequent another place to be with a woman other than his wife, it is lawful to
annul  the  marriage. If he  was warned  by his  parents  or her  parents (his
in-laws) or other concerned parties and does  not listen, the marriage is null
and  void. The  rules concerning gifts,   dowry, furniture as  in 134.  above.

137.  If there  are criminal laws concerning the  adulterous behavior of  men,
they can be treated according to the criminal law instead of marriage law!


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                Concerning The Forbidding of Taking a Mistress
                                  Chapter 25

1. Taking a  mistress  ("tassari") is  forbidden  according  to our  Christian
Faith, because it is outside  the limits of  legal marriage. It is a continous
open adultery.

2.  If one has a mistress regardless of her being a slave or free, should stop
and   marry  her according   to the  law   (assuming that  he  is not  already
married). If he does not do what is commanded, he should be separated from the

3.  It  is forbidden to keep  a mistress in ones  home, and  if one is already
doing that  there is no  difference between that  and adultery. If he wants to
keep  the relation,  he should  marry  her. If he feels  that  she is not good
enough, he should let her go and marry one that is  suitable for him or live a
celibate life.

4.  If one combines a wife and a slave as mistress,  he should be punished and
it is up to the authority to sell her (to get her out of the situation).

5.  A mistress of an un-believer if  she is his slave and  does not sleep with
anyone else, and raised her children shoul be included in  the society, but if
she sleeps with others should be kept out.

6.  It is not proper now for anyone to take a mistress after the law of Christ
was given to us, because we are all free and there  is no slaves in Christ. If
one says how come  David and Solomon kept  mistresses,  her is the reason:  in
those days people were not many  and it was allowed  to increase the number of
people on earth. But today there is no need for such and  now we have a better
law (meaning the law of monogomy).


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                          Concerning Grants (Gifts)
                                  Chapter 26

1.   We look at grants/gifts   from 5 points   of consideration: The gift, the
giver, the recipient, the given item, and the rest of the conditions.

2.  The value of the grant to those who do not need giving is  the same as the
value of the donation  to the  needy. It is   a desired virtue second  only to
alms. If the giver of the grant  signed it off  and the recipient accepted it,
it becomes the property of the recipient and he can do whatever he wants to do
with it.

3.  The giver can not give a  gift unless he  is of legal age, rational, free,
and without fear from the recipient. If he is under fear  of the recipient, he
should not execute the gift and it  can only take  place after his death if it
was not proven that he withdraw his offer of giving.

4.  The giver can sign  a grant document any  time, but he  can choose a later
time for executing it which can be for a time after his death.

5.   If one gives all his  wealth in his life before  having an off-spring and
afterwards he produces  an off-spring, he  can ask for  part or all of what he
granted  to be returned  back.  He is entitled  to what  he gave  or  the fair
monetary value. It is unlawful to request such return  of gift after the death
of one of the parties (giver or recipient), or if the recipient lost the gift,
or  if he is not capable  to return fair  value, or  if the  giver has already
received monetary compensation for the gift, or if the  return of the gift can
cause the recipient harm  such as if the  gift was land and  a wall is already
built on it in which case the return of fair value is proper.

6.  If one who is under the legal age made  a gift and  decided to retract it,
he has four  year after reaching  the legal age to ask  for the return of  the

7.  A gift given by a written document is not  executed unless the document is
signed and   handed  to the recipient.  Once   the document is  passed  to the
recipient, the giver can not take it back.

8.  If the grant  was to a  child or a grandchild  it  can be valid  without a
written document. He  also can ask  for its return in his  life. But after his
death, the gift is granted even if there is no supporting document.

9.   Those   who are to   receive in  order  of  priority   are: The children,
grandchildren,  parents,  first  degree relatives,   relatives, in-laws, close
friends, friends, servants, acquaintances, neighbors, and all others.

10. It is preferred to give equal amounts to those of  equal rank. For example
equal gifts to all the children.

11.  If the recipient doe not show appreciation to the giver, he can loose the
gift. Other  causes  for loosing  the  gift are: grave  injustice  towards the
giver, causing  the  giver extreme financial harm,  not  giving him a  benefit
stipulated in the conditions of the gift, or conspiring or acting to cause him
to loose his life. In all these cases, an open public  judgment is required to
prove  that the  recipient  has   actually engaged  in   any   of the   listed
actions. When  it is proven that  such  has taken place   the recipient has to
return the gift, but if he can not return it, he has to  give fair value.  The
recipient determines  what  is  fair  value unless   there is  proof  that his
statement is not reliable.

12.  If the  recipient claims  inability  to pay, he  is  not required  to pay
unless there is proof that his claim is untrue.

13.  It is not proper to give to a recipient not known  to the giver. Also, it
is not valid unless it is accepted by the recipient.

14.  The thing (given item)  can not be an  unknown, also it  is not proper to
give an item that  is not owned by  the giver, or an item  that can cause  the
recipient any harm. For   example, it is not  proper  to give a mad  person  a
sword, because he might kill himself or someone else with it.

15.  If the item  does not need  boundary  or location identification  such as
money, it can be given without  a document. But  if it need identification, it
needs a witnessed  written document to identify it  and determine  exactly the
conditions. It is preferred  that the document is  written by the giver in his
own hand writing.

16.  If the   given item is  large property   such as an  entire  village, the
produce goes to the recipient from the  time the grant  is executed unless the
giver  stipulates otherwise. If the  giver stipulates that  the produce of the
current year or any other  doe not go to the  recipient, it shall be as stated
as  long as it  does not violate the intent  of the grant.  The conditions the
recipient accepts (in writing) are binding.

17. The rest of the conditions of a gift are as follows: It should not violate
the purpose of the gift,

18.  If a recipient of a grant dies before receiving it, it does not become an
inheritance to those who succeed him.

19.  If one is  under arrest and gives  through  his father, it is  considered
that the father is the giver out of respect for the father.

20. If one gives what is not his, the real owner is considered the giver!


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                   Concerning Loans, Collateral, and Bonds
                                  Chapter 2

1. Lending is a virtue of the same class as giving  because the Lord commanded
us to do it: `But  love ye your  enemies, and do  good,  and lend, hoping  for
nothing again; and your reward shall be great, and ye shall be the children of
the Highest: for he is kind unto the unthankful and to the evil.'  (Luke 6:35)

2.  Diligence  in paying back a  loan is a duty following  the saying of David
the Prophet: `He hath dispersed, he hath  given to the poor; his righteousness
endureth for ever; his horn shall be exalted with honour.' (Psalms 112:9)

3.  Patience with the borrower until he is able to pay back is commanded us by
the Lord: `And if ye lend to them of whom ye hope  to receive, what thank have
ye? for  sinners  also  lend to  sinners,  to receive  as  much again.'  (Luke
6:34). Also the Lord commands us to forgive those  who can not  pay back as he
reminded the servant who  did not forgive his  fellow servant that the Lord of
the house will not have mercy on him.

4.  Loans are usually guaranteed with collateral  or guarantor or co-signer or
through a witnessed  contract. Sometimes it relies  on the hand writing of the
borrower or his  honesty (word) only.  The use  of a witness is preferred, but
hand writing (signature) is a proof as well.

5. Payment when (the loan is) due is required,  but it is preferred if payment
is  ahead of time.  The payment has to be  in kind and if  not to  be in equal
value, and  it   is preferred if  the   type and the  amount   of  payment are
stipulated in the conditions of the loan.

6.  If the borrower claims that he can not pay back,  the lender can take what
is available to cover the loan with permission from the  ruler and through the
use of experts (appraisers) in fairly evaluating the value of what is taken in
place of the loan.

7.   If one denies that he  owes but  it was proven  later on  that he did, he
looses everything he owns.

8.  One who denies he owes falsely, and it  is proven otherwise is required to
pay double, but if he confesses that  he falsely denied,  is saved from paying

9.  If one leaves as collateral an item, all proceed  from it goes against the
principal of the original loan because the  commandments prohibit lending with
usury (excessive interest rate): `Unto a stranger thou mayest lend upon usury;
but unto thy brother thou shalt not lend upon usury: that the LORD thy God may
bless thee  in all that thou  settest thine hand to  in the land  whither thou
goest to possess it ` (Deuteronomy 23:20).
10.  So if one takes a collateral and its value exceeds the loan value, and if
the loan was paid the collateral is returned in full including any increase in
its value.

11.   No matter how poor  the borrower's  performance is  in  paying the loans
back, the lender has to protect the collateral as if it  was his own property.

12.  Whatever is lost of the value of  the collateral is the responsibility of
the lender. The lender has to return  the collateral in its original condition
and compensate for any loss in its value.

13.  But if they have agreed to other conditions, these conditions are binding
in seeking judgment.

14.  If the collateral is lost, and if the  collateral is equal exactly to the
loan,  there is nothing  owed. But if the collateral  is  larger in value, the
lender owes the difference.

15.  The lender  can ask for any  expense related to  keeping  the collateral.

16.  If they agreed that the  collateral be sold at the  time the loan is due,
the lender can do  so. The lender is  not  allowed to  sell for less  than the
value without permission from  the  ruler. If it  is sold  for less than   its
value, the lender is responsible for the difference between  the value and the
loan amount.

17.  As long as the collateral is with the lender or those who inherit him (it
covers the loan). It is o be returned as soon as the loan is paid unless it is
stipulated otherwise,  also it can be  used as payment if it  is equal  to the
loan in value.

18.  If the collateral dies, is set free, or given away the lender is required
to compensate the borrower for it  when the loan  is paid. But if the borrower
is not able to  pay back, giving  the collateral  away  is not  possible until
after the loan comes due.

19.  It is  unlawful  to give  away  collateral which produces benefit  to the

20. Also, it is unlawful  to do transactions  with the collateral which  harms
the borrower, for example  leasing it for a term  longer than the term of  the

21.  It is unlawful to use  certain unallowable items for collateral. Examples
are: Free  servant, property already used  as a  trust for charity, perishable
goods. If they disagree, they have  accept the word and oath  of the lender in
determined that proper replacement is required!

22.  If the lender claims (falsely) that he  returned the collateral, his word
is rejected.

21.  It is unlawful to use  certain unallowable items for collateral. Examples
are: Free servant,  property already used as  a trust  for charity, perishable
goods. If they disagree, they have accept the  word and oath  of the lender in
determined that proper replacement is required!

22.  If the lender claims (falsely) that  he returned the collateral, his word
is rejected.

23.  If the value  of  the collateral increases  after the  agreement it still
remains with the lender to the end of the loan.

24.  If they agreed  that  it stays with the   lender or with a keeper  (third
party) it shall be according to the loan agreement.

25.  A keeper shall    perform what is requested   of  him according  to   the

26.  It  is  unlawful  to borrow  or   use as collateral  what is   illegal to

27.  The legal  heirs of the lender or  borrower have to follow the stipulated
conditions of the loan if either or both die before the completion of the term
of the  loan.  The rulers have   authority in case one  of  the parties is not
represented (no legal heirs).

28.  If one has a legal ownership right or a bond,  he and his legal heirs can
not  ask  for it if  they  waited longer than 30  years  to make their request
(statute   of limitation   is 30    years  for  loans, collaterals, bonds).   
29.  If  a lender has  in his hands  a collateral and is not  able to  get the
payment (after the 30  years limit), he can  keep the  collateral, but if  the
collateral is out of his hand and  he waited more  than 30 years he looses his
right to claim it.

30.  This rule is  applicable to all  requests  of payment/ownership  of items
like loans, inheritance, penalties, laws, joint ownership, boundaries of land,
water  ways, houses,  villages, orchards, ..  etc. It  is unlawful  to ask for
ownership if one waited more than 30 years before making a claim.

31.  The father is  not responsible for a  loan taken by his off-spring unless
it was done by his permission.  Also, one is not  responsible for the debts of
his mother, siblings, in-laws unless he was a co-signer.

32.  Co-signature and bail are of two kinds, one for property the other is for
a person.

33.  About co-signature, one who can  freely manage his  own wealth can freely
co-sign for a loan.

34.  If he co-signs by free will he is responsible for the loan, but if he was
coerced, he is not responsible for anything.

35.  The words used for  co-signature is to  say I am cosigner (`ana damaant')
and it shall be as you said. What you state you  are responsible for, not what
one of the parties claims that your are responsible for.

36.  If the co-signer asks  the borrower to throw  his property in the sea, or
his  cloth in the fire, he   is not to  be obeyed.  The lender  has to ask the
borrower first before he can send any claims to the co-signer.

37.   If the  borrower  flees, the ruler  shall try  to  place a claim  on the
properties known to belong  to him first, otherwise they  will do the  same to
the co-signer.

38.  The lender shall ask the borrower for the payment then the co-signer, but
if the co-signer has one that co-signed for him, request is made to all three.

39.  If one of the three dies, the others are responsible for the loan.

40.   If the lender  frees the responsibility  of one  of the co-signers, this
co-signer is free from there on.

41. If any of the  responsible for the loan  completes its payment, all claims
against the others are no longer.

42.  If the co-signers are  many, but each  co-signed for the entire loan. The
borrower  can ask  each and  everyone   for the  entire  loan. If   one of the
co-signers pays off the entire loan, he can ask  the others for equal share of
payment to him since he paid-off.

43.  If  responsibility was divided  among them, each  is responsible  for his
portion only.

44.  If the lender agrees  with the borrower about  forgiving a portion of the
loan, the co-signer is relieved of responsibility for the waived amount.

45.   Co-signature  can be  conditional as long   as the  borrower accepts the
conditions.  It is up  to the co-signer to  monitor the situation to make sure
that the borrower is abiding by the conditions.

46.  If the  co-signer and  the borrower  agree on  a  collateral between  the
borrower and co-signer, and if the co-signer accepts the collateral he becomes
responsible of the loan in place of the borrower and the value  of the item is
his with profit or loss.

47.  It is unlawful for the lender  to refuse to accept  back the full payment
at anytime (no pre-payment penalty).

48.  Anything that can not be paid back by the  co-signer can not be co-signed
for. For example co-signing for fulfilling the commandments is not legal.

49.  If the borrower dies,  the co-signer can ask  the legal heir, if any,  to
pay up.

50.   If the co-signer dies,   his wealth is the  target  for guaranteeing the
loan, but his legal heir are not personally responsible.

51.  One who guarantees (bails) a person has to bring him up as agreed.

52.  The guarantee (bail) is worded as follows: I guarantee to bring in so and
so, or I guarantee so and so to bring in so and so.

53.  A guarantee (bail)  can be for a  certain period or  certain date.  If he
brings the  accused on or  before that date  he has  accomplished  what he has
promised. Also if the  accused surrenders by his  own will, the bailer is free
of all responsibility.

54.  If the one bailed  disappears, the bailer is responsible  to the ruler to
bring him in within an acceptable period of  time, otherwise he is responsible
for all the obligations  of the escaped. If it  was for financial matter,  the
bailer becomes responsible for it.

55.  If  the bailer is  not available and another becomes  a  bailer, both are

56. It is unlawful to bail one accused of killing.

57.  If the bailed dies, the bailer is free of all responsibility.

58.  The normal action is to seek the accused. If  it is not possible to reach
him then the accuser goes for the bailer.

59.  It is unlawful for a priest to sign collateral or be a bailer.

60.  A woman's co-signature or bail are not acceptable.

61.  If one contests a loan document or an oath, he is  asked to swore that it
is not his he  is relieved unless it  is proven that he  swore falsely he owes
everything as it was explained earlier.

62.  If he refuses to swore, he is responsible to what is in the document.

63.  If  there was no  written document, he is  responsible for what is stated

64.  Remember that the Lord commanded in the Torah  that the lender should not
deal harshly with a borrower unable to pay, He  commanded not to take away the
cloth he is wearing, and not  to imprison him.  The Gospels stated the same as

65.  For this  reason it  is  advised not to  deal harshly  with one  who  has
received a continuance (delay) for payment due.  Also, if  it is necessary the
ruler shall guarantee the safety of the borrower during the agreed to delay.

66.  When the loan is due, if the  borrower is not able  to pay, the ruler can
order what he  owns sold on the  hands of  those who are  honest  and care for
bringing in the best value.

67.  They shall  sell the perishable items like  livestock first, then  follow
with real estate.

68.  Payment shall be only for proven debts and for fairness  it is not enough
to use the word of  the  borrower (have to  reconcile  the statements of  both

69.  What necessity dictates shall be returned to borrower.

70.  If the income  from the sale is  not enough, all  lenders are compensated
portions proportional to the values of their loans.

71.  Any properties found are sold for payment of the loan.

72. If it brings more than the value of the loans, he keeps the difference.

73.  If the  lenders could not  find any property, they  will ask him to swore
that  he does not own any   and let him  go. But  if they  prove that he swore
falsely, the ruler shall imprison him until he pays.

74.  If it was proven through two witnesses that he could not pay, they should
allow him more time and let him go .

75.  If he earns wages, he can be required  to make installment payments based
on ability to pay.

76.   If it  was not proven  that he  could  not  pay, his imprisonment  shall


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
               Concerning  Lending Without Seeking Compensation
                                  Chapter 28

1. Lending without seeking compensation is a special  way of lending (Fee Free

2.  If one borrows a riding animal for a specific purpose and a specific place
and exceeds the purpose  and/or place, he is responsible  for what  happens to
the animal and if it  dies he owes its  value. He also  is responsible for its
value if he stays within limits but abuses or  neglects the animal. But if its
owner was  present the borrower is not  responsible (because  the owner should
have objected to improper action). But if he paid for the use, its destruction
is covered by rental agreement.

3.  If he exceeds the agreed plan, he should pay rent for the difference.

4.  Anyone who is free to act,  can borrow what is possible  to borrow or lend
what is possible to lend.  Borrowing an item  gives the right  of use but  the
ownership belongs to the lender.

5.  If it was  an animal and  died or ran away,  he is not responsible for  it
unless he absolutely promised to return it back  safely.

6.  If they disagree, the borrower's word and his oath are accepted.

7.  It is better that the item to be borrowed and period of loan and condition
of loan are set by the lender.

8.  It is the right of the  lender to claim  what was borrowed any time unless
there was a promise of duration or purpose and neither was satisfied yet.

9.  What looses its principal value such as money or can be measure or weighed
is not to be given as free loan, but as a repayable loan.


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                           Concerning  Safe Keeping
                                  Chapter 29

1. Safe  keeping  is for one, the  depositor,  to leave a   valuable item with
another, for safe keeping without paying a fee for the service.  If the keeper
accepts to do so, he is obligated to protect it as  if it was  his own, and by
doing  so, if    it  is destroyed  (if   it  dies), he  is   not  responsible.

2.  If the keeper tries to return the  deposited item for  its safety, but the
depositor   refuses to take  it  back, the keeper is  not  responsible for its

3.  If it spoils or dies because of natural causes or if it gets infected with
worms or if it is destroyed or lost due to fire or  flood or robbery, or taken
by force and as  long as there  is no  proof  of collaboration or deceit,  the
keeper is not responsible unless there is a written agreement to the contrary.

4.  If the owner asks for  his deposit and the keeper  refuses to return it or
lies about having it, he is responsible.

5.  Also, if the keeper lends the  item to himself or  to others or uses it as
collateral for his personal benefit he is responsible for his actions.

6.   If  it was   deposited by  other than   original  owner, for  example  as
collateral. It is not to  be returned to the owner  without a permission  from
the depositor: verbal, in writing, or through an emissary.

7.  It is unlawful for the safe keeper to  refuse to give a written indication
that he has a given item in deposit.

8.  If the safe  keeper refuses to follow the  depositor instructions he is at
fault. For example if the depositor asks not to show the item and he shows it,
or if he asks him to give it to another and he refuses,  or if he asks him not
to give it to a person and he gives it, or if he asks him not  to keep it in a
particular place and he  keeps it where he  was told not to,  he is at fault. 

9.  If a deposit  becomes an inheritance for someone  other than the depositor
and the safe keeper did not tell the heir, he is at fault.

10.  If the  safe keeper intends to  travel to a far  away place and could not
find the depositor or his legal representative, he is responsible to leave the
deposit with the  ruler, or with an  honest substitute making sure to document
its legal description like characteristics and/or weight.

11.  If the depositor  is not found for  a period appropriate for his expected
life span, it is to be returned to his heir. If he has no  legal heir it is to
be given to a trust or charitable  organization with permission from the ruler

12.  It is up  to the depositor or the   safe keeper to terminate  the deposit
agreement anytime as long as the deposit is returned back to the depositor.

13.   Who ever refuses to  end  the deposit  agreement is  responsible for the
situation, for refusing to  cooperate. If  it stays  with  the safe keeper  it
becomes a liability to him.

14.  If a safe keeper accepts  a deposit from an  emissary for a depositor, it
belong to the  owner and not to  the emissary and it  is to be returned to the
owner not the emissary. And if he dies it returns to his heirs. It can only be
returned to the emissary by permission from the owner.

15.  If one  accepts a deposit to be  passed to another  for safe keeping. The
first shall pass it to the designated safe keeper informing him clearly of who
the owner is and that it is not to be passed to another without the permission
of the real owner.

16.  If two people gave  an item for safe  keeping to another. The safe keeper
is not allowed to return it to one without the permission of the other.

17.    If  a slave  or  an  animal   is left  for  safe  keeping,   it is  the
responsibility of the safe keeper to feed it and  if it dies  for lack of food
or drink,  the safe keeper is responsible  for it even if he  was told  not to
feed it.  The  owner  however owes  all   expense related  to  sustaining  the
deposit. If  the owner refuses  to pay the  expense of sustaining his deposit,
the deposit   becomes a collateral  for that  expense and  is  kept until such
expense is paid in full.   If they disagree, the  word  of the safe keeper  is
taken because he was trusted to keep the item. But if  the depositor has proof
that his word is what was agreed to, it shall be taken.

18.  It is unlawful to deposit what is not lawful  to exchange and what is not
lawful to receive.

19.  The privilege to be safe keeper is void when the safe keeper dies or when
he looses his mental faculties until he regains it back.

20. If one accepts a stolen item or an item taken by force as a deposit, he is
guilty twice as much.

21. One who  does not care for   a deposit as if  it  was his own property  is
considered like one who committed fraud.

22.  The owner of the deposit can ask for restitution as  for one who suffered
an act of fraud.

                                      Pages From Church History
                                      Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                           Concerning  Agents/Advocates ("Wakeel")
                                                  Chapter 30

1.  Everything one can   deal in by  himself,  can  be  dealt with through  an
advocate/agent ("wakeel") including representation in a court of law (power of

2. Advocacy can  be absolute in all things  or limited to specific item(s) and
can be done for a fee or free of charge.

3. Any loss  to the plaintiff is  not binding to the advocate  as  long as the
actions were done expediently and without the intention to defraud

4.  Advocacy is not valid unless it is requested by the plaintiff and accepted
by the advocates orally, or through action.

5.   It  is unlawful   for advocate/agent  to sell   an item  belonging to the
plaintiff without permission and setting a late payment  or lower price has to
be by permission also.

6.   If he was  told to sell later,  he can  also  sell sooner if  there is no
financial harm in expedience.

7.  The agent should not buy an item for his plaintiff unless it was specified
and the price was set.

8.   If he was  told to buy  an item immediately, he can  buy  it later (if it
benefits to wait).

10. If the item he buys is defective, he can return it  back as long as it was
not delivered. If it is delivered, he can not return it without permission.

11. If he was asked to buy an item from  the advocate’s money; e.g. Oil for
1000 Pieces, he shall buy it for  him and keep  it as collateral until he gets

12.   If  the advocate  buys  the item  without request,  the plaintiff is not

13.  If the advocate buys requested item for his plaintiff, he can not keep it
for himself. Only can he do that by permission from the plaintiff.

14.  The agent should  not buy for higher  or sell for  lower than going price
unless  there is a reason  like changes of  season or if  the contract is with
close relatives of the   plaintiff, children,  spouse,  or parents   (with the
plaintiff permission of course).

15.  If the plaintiff asks for  an item and the agent  bought two for the same
price they both belong to the plaintiff.  Example if he  was given a Dinary to
buy a goat and was able to buy two, they both belong to the plaintiff.

16.  If he  was asked to  sell an item to  a  person for  a  price and  if the
purpose was  just to sell  the item it can  be sold to  another  as long as it
brings the value sought.

17.  If they disagree, the word of the agent is taken  because he was selected
as agent/advocate.

18.   If he pays  a debt for  the  plaintiff without proof   and if the debtor
denies he received the payment, it is the advocate’s responsibility.

19.  If the agent makes a deposit  for his plaintiff, it is  better for him to
use the plaintiff as witness.

20.  If one hires two agents for the same thing, none can act alone. They have
to act together, unless  it is a matter of  no big consequence, like freeing a
slave without compensation or  conditions or the return a  deposit or ending a

21.  If one buys his servant contract to set him free, he has to mention it in
the contract.

22.  It  is unlawful  for an agent  to  use another agent  unless it  is  with
permission  from his plaintiff, or  if his plaintiff  is  present and does not
object, or for an apparent strong reason.

23.  The termination of advocacy can only take  place if the plaintiff informs
the advocate  in person.  Also  it is  not for the  advocate  to terminate his
service until after he informs the plaintiff and only  after an arrangement is
made for another agent to take care of his affairs.

24.  If one of the parties is no longer able to act, like in the case of death
or imprisonment of one of the parties, the arrangement  is considered null and

25.   If the agent looses  his mental faculties or   looses his eye sight, the
arrangement is null and void even I the plaintiff was not informed.


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                Concerning Freedom, Slavery, and Setting a Slave Free
                                                  Chapter 31

[Slavery  is a thing  of  the past,  but even in  the  time of Christ, slavery
existed and there is commandments concerning slaves  in the New Testament. The
Bible commanded fair  treatment of slaves and  in return required them to obey
their masters. In the USA the declaration of Emancipation of the slaves in the
famous Gettysburg Address, Nov. 19, 1863, did  cost president Lincoln his life
on the hands of John  Wilkes Booth, April  14, 1865. Slavery continued through
the 19th century and into the beginning of the 20th century. There could still
be small pockets of slavery in  the world today! This  chapter is for historic
record only]

1.  All people share in an  original given nature of being  free. But wars and
trickery  brought  in a  situation in   which  some are winners and   some are
losers. The loser become enslaved to winners of war. The Torah (Old Testament)
states that only  those  who are  not in   the  faith (gentiles) can  be  made
slaves. Because it is written in the Torah that your slaves and maids whom you
take from the gentiles and  the people who surround you  are an inheritance to
you and to your children after you.

2.  It is unlawful to sell a slave who is a believer to an unbeliever.

3.  The child of a (female) slave is owned by her master regardless of the way
the child was  conceived, through legal  or illegal means. If  she is set free
while she  is pregnant, the new born  is free as a benefit  of the freedom she
gained in her pregnancy.

4. It is lawful to free the unborn without giving freedom to the mother.

5.  The new born of a free woman is free  even if the  father was a slave. And
even if the woman is enslaved after conception,  the new born is free (because
he/she was conceived while the mother was free).

6.  Granting freedom (to slaves) is a virtue like  the highest level of giving
(alms), because it is the virtue of giving  another the right to enjoy freedom
which is the way all should be. It  can not be done  except by full freedom of
choice on the side of the giver.

7.  If it is  based  on conditions,  it  is lawful to sell   the slave if  the
conditions  are not   met. But  if  he is  bought  again  by same  person, the
conditions are no longer valid unless they are renewed.

8.  If it is  based on a future time,  he  can use  the slave until  that time
expires and then sets him free. He can also require that  the slave serves him
for a certain number of years after he sets him free. But  to require that the
slave and his  off-spring serve the master and  his off-spring  is not setting
him free (because of the perpetual nature of the condition).

9.  Setting  a   slave free  is to   be done  by   public announcement to  the
congregation, or in the  presence of the bishop and/or  priest or on the hands
of three witnesses. If it is written as a will, it is treated like a will.

10.  Setting a slave free can be for a fully owned or for  partly owned slave.
Like if one owns  1/3 of a  slave, he can  free the part  he owns. Also, if he
chooses he can  buy the other  two thirds for a  fair price and  set the whole
slave free. The partners are obliged to sell for fair price.

11.  The value of a slave is based on the present value of  a slave with equal
qualifications. This  value   increases  or decreases based    on professional
abilities and age.

12. It is preferred to buy  a believer slave than  to buy an unbeliever slave.

13.  A slave is to be set free for any of the following seven reasons:

First, If one owned his parents or higher  level relative, brothers or sisters
and lower   level relatives or  anyone that  can  inherit him  for  any reason
whatsoever, he has to set such person(s) free.

Second, If one accepted another through baptism (godparents or eshpeen), or if
a slave became priest or monk, such person has to be set free.

Third,  If a slave was made to join armed forces, he has to be set free,

Fourth, If a slave saved the life of his master by fighting for him or even by
warning him (of real danger), he has to be set free.

Fifth, If a pregnant woman is set free, her unborn child becomes free,

Sixth, If a slave was captured  in a war and returns  to his master by his own
free will he has to set him free,

Seventh, If the master dies and no one to inherit him, the  slave is set free.

14.  If one frees a slave for the sake of  God or even for unlikeable reasons,
it is lawful for the slave to be set free.

15.  If one accepts to be sold as a slave and he was 20 years of age or older,
he is a slave, especially if  he was part of a  dowry or if he participated in
setting the price of his enslavement. But if he was under 20  years of age and
was free before he was sold, the ruler can set him free.

16.  If one  sets a slave  free, he can  bring  him back  to slavery if  it is
proven to the authority that the person caused his former  master harm such as
calling  the master  or  his off-spring  names   or conspiring to  cause  them
financial or physical harm.

17. It is  preferred according to  the Torah that when  one sets a slave free,
not to send him empty handed but to give him what will secure a livelihood for

18.  It is undesirable for a free woman to marry a slave  and live with him in
his master's house or bring him to live in her  house, because by doing so she
is subjecting herself to becoming a slave.

19.  It is also undesirable  for one to  take in a  slave of another or to buy
such persons because the slave belongs to the original master.


                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                 Concerning Imposed Guardianship (Power of  Attorney)
                                                  Chapter 32

1. Imposed Guardianship can be due to one of two reasons:

First, The  cesation of the  mind to function  normally  and rationally due to
psychological reasons  as in madness  or  physiological reasons  as in  mental
retardation,  or   defficiency which can  be    manifested in behavior showing
immaturity of  the mind  for  young mentaaly disabled  or  senility  for older
persons whose  mental abilities has weakened.  Also  another group of mentally
not capable are those who have mental ability  but do not  use it or when they
use it they use it to cause harm to themselves or  to others. Also some of the
mentally deficient  are those  who are wasteful  and  unwise in handling their
financial affairs. Also those who are  unwise in the  things relating to their
religous affairs like those who are foolish in the  way they dress, use banned
substances, and  indulge in bodily  desires. The charactrisitcs of  the unwise
are counter to those of the wise.

Second,  If  one refuses  to  act wisely  concerning  his  well being and  his
property also those who are enslaved.

2.  The one under imposed guardianship:  mad, crazed, young mentally disabled,
or old  mentally  impaired,  is not  permitted  to  take actions concerning  a
contract,  or important decision   for himself or  for  others. But if  he was
unwise, he can  act for himself but not  for others. In  either case one needs
the approval of the guardian for making decision.

3.   If he was  a  slave,  he  needs the  approval  of  his master  for making
decisions. But if he is set free, he is responsible for his action.

4.  If the person under guardianship  is sick and makes  a lawful (through the
guardian) will, it  is binding. But if  he decides to change it,  it has to be
ruled on by authority.

5.  In most cases, the guardian is the  father (parent), if the parent himself
is not under guardianship, then the bothers from the older to the younger, the
grandparent, the uncle, the cousin (son of the fathers’ brother). The wiser
is recommended over the other ahead in family relation.

6.   If one looses his  mental faculties, his full  of age  wise off-spring is
favored to be his imposed guardian.

7.  But after the off-spring, the father (parent) of the person is the logical
choice for guardian.

8.  If none is found (from the  family) to be  guardian, the ruler (authority)
has to  appoint a qualified  and honest guardian under  the supervision of the

9.  It is unlawful for the guardian to sell any of the  property of the person
in his custody for less than fair value. And not to loan out or sell for later
payment without a proof and/or collateral.  And not to loan anything belonging
to the person without a strong reason and obtaining a collateral to safe guard
the property of the one in his custody.

10.  If they disagree,  the word  of the guardian   is taken unless the person
(under custody) has a proof otherwise.

11.  If  the guardian claims   that he spent  the money  of the  person in his
custody  on the  needs of that  person or  if  he claims that  a  loss was not
intentional his word is taken.

12. But if he claims that he gave the person all his property when the imposed
custody ended, the guardian has to come up with the proof.

13.  The  guradian has to  spend on the  person according to what is customary
and  ordinary for  people of like  situation   and according to  the available
funds. He is  not to deny him  necessities  which are: food,  cloths, shelter,
marriage if appropriate for his situation, a vocation, and education.

14.  The  guardian is to  care for  those  whom the person  in  his custody is
supposed to  care  for as well. These  could  be parents, siblings,  or slaves

15.  It is lawful for the ruler (authority) to treat a person in debt like one
who is under  imposed guardianship, and command him  not  to spend except  for
essentials of food and shelter until he pays his debtors!!!

16.  If the   indebted declares  debts  other  than  the  one for  which   the
guardianship is  imposed, such debts shall wait  until the previously declared
ones are paid in full.

17.   Imposed  guardianship ceases if the   reasons  for imposing it  cease to
exist. Like if the  person regains his mental   abilities, or if he  was under
guardianship  because of young age.  In  such case  he  asks the authority  to
remove the imposed guardianship and provide  him with certification that he is
fully capable to conduct his own affairs.

18.   It is  preferred  if  the imposed guardianship  is   based on authorized
certification to avoid problems related to conflicting actions.

19.  Also,  it is recommended  that  removing imposed guardianship  be through
certification  documenting   the reason  for removal through   cesation of the
previously existing causes.

                                      Pages From Church History
                          Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                            Concerning Selling, Buying, and Trade
                                                  Chapter 33

Part One:

1.  Buying or Selling is  unlawful unless the buyer  and  the seller are  both
free to act and none of them under any imposed guardianship.

2.  It can not be  done unless the  seller is willing  to  sell and the  buyer
accepts to buy without pressure and when one agrees and the other then accepts
it can be completed otherwise it has to be called off.

3.  If they depart before writing a sales contract or before the price is paid
and when the merchandise is returned  to owner (seller) they  can do so unless
there is a binding witnessed agreement to the contrary.

4.  It is acceptable  to sell a  not available item  based on  specifications.
When the item becomes available  the sale is valid as  long as it is according
to specifications otherwise the buyer can choose to cancel the agreement.

5.  A product that is mobile like domestic  animals, food, grain, cloths, wood
products, metals are considered sold when they are transported from the seller
to the  buyer. Valuable items  such  as precious stones   and gold are usually
handed  from seller to buyer at  which time they   are considered sold.  Fixed
items such as land, gardens, and buildings are considered sold when the seller
informs the buyer of date transaction takes effect.

6.  some sales are not based on written  contracts, other are based on written
contract. In the later case it is legal when  the contract is delivered to the
buyer  signed by two  witnesses. The more witnesses  the better. The contracts
can be a form contract (warraq)  or by a  scribe {katib) with the signature of
the seller following the signature  of the scribe.  The book (contract)  shall
acknowledge the  sale and describe the conditions  of the sale, specifications
of the sold item, identify the price and payment terms  which can be immdeiate
or deferred and if deferred the deferment period.

7.  If it is without contract a down payment is  usually considered a proof of
sale. If the down payment  is accepted it is an  indication that the terms are
acceptable to both sides.

8.  If the buyer changes his mind,  he looses the  down payment. If the seller
changes his mind, he has to return double the down payment.

9.  If the sale is for immediate  payment, it is  considered complete when the
buyer makes the full payment and the seller hands the merchandise.

10.  If  the sale for deferred  payment, the seller has no  choice but to hand
the merchandise and wait for the period specified in the payment agreement (to
be paid).

11.  It is not necessary to know  amount or price of  substitution at the time
of sale, it is to be determined later if it becomes necessary.

12.  If the price is fixed  it is better to  identify the currency it is based
on; e.g. Egyptian (Massry),  Cesarian (Caiseria or  Soor), .. etc. If currency
is to be exchanged, it is better to find out rate of exchange in advance.

13.  It is necessary  to specify the goods sold  accurately. For example if  a
garden is sold it  is important to  specify if it is  sold with or without the
fruits for  the year of  sale or if  what is  sold  is the fruits  without the
trees, .. etc.  If a house is sold it is important to  specify if the building
alone is  sold or if the building  and contents are   sold. These examples are
commonly  known to the  public  and are  used  to illustrate the importance of
accurate specification.

14.  If a basic item  was sold only without the  fruits like trees without the
fruits, it is the  responsibility of the seller to  claim his fruits and  take
care of watering and feeding and transportation of what is his.

15.  What can be measured or weighted can be sold in lot (without measurement)
but it is better to use measurements.

16.  If  one buys in lots and  he knows the unit price,  he can choose to take
the whole or as many units as equals his payment!

17.  If one buys a lot according to a price per unit and  if he finds out that
he received less units than he paid for, he can choose to take it or break the
contract. If he receives more units than  he paid for he  can choose to return
the excess!    Example if one    paid 100 pences (darahim)  for   100 yards of
material and if it was found to be less  than 100 yards he  can choose to take
it or break the contract. If it is  more, he can choose to  keep or return the

18.  If one sees an item  he owns being sold by  another he ought to speak up,
and if he does not it is as if he sold it himself.

19.  A slave can buy anything he wishes to buy, but all he buys belongs to his

Part Two:

20.  If the item spoils (or damaged) before the sale is complete  and if it is
in the hands of the buyer or not the sale is off. If the buyer is the one that
caused the damages required  to pay the price  to the seller. If  someone else
cause the damage, the buyer has the choice to call the  transaction off and it
is up to the seller to request restitution from the party that caused the

21.  If it spoils or damaged after  the sale is  complete even if this happens
on the day it is delivered it belongs to the buyer and he  owes the full price
to the seller.  If the sold  item was a slave  and lost an eye  or a hand or a
leg, or if it was a house it burned by fire partially or fully, or if it was a
village and was  flooded  partially or fully, the   loss is that of  the buyer
unless it  is proven that the  seller cheated or  caused intentional damage to

22.  Every increase in the value of the item sold is  a gain to the buyer only
and none of it returns to the seller.

23.  If they disagree about loss of  value, the word  of the seller is and his
solemn  oath are taken.   But concerning  increase in  value,  the word of the
buyer and his solemn oath are taken.

Part Three:

24.  Choice (option) buying is to say that if I like the given item on a given
date  and for a  given price  I  will take it   and  sign a  contract  to that
effect. It is dealt with as a choice not a test.

25.  If a  period for  the  option is not  stated,  three days is usually  and
customary waiting period for goods that do not spoil. The  item stays with the
seller for  the time of  the option and can not  be  traded without permission
from the buyer, but  if the buyer refuses  to act when  the option expires  he
looses the option and owes the price thereof.

26.  If the person who placed the option dies, the option agreement is off.

27.  If one buys an item based on specific  qualities and if the qualities are
not there, he  can choose to ask  for full refund. For  example if one buys  a
slave who is supposed to be  a prize fighter  and was not he  can ask for full

28.  Also if one  or his agent buy an  item and did not see  it in advance, he
can choose to return it if it is not what they thought it was.

29.  It  is  adequate for  buying some  items  based on  visual inspection  to
examine a  sample.  For example buying large   quantities of  oil  or grain or
folded lots of cloth material.

30.  If a  fault  was found  in the  item  (through inspection) the  buyer can
choose to  call  the sale  off. He   can  also accept it   for  a lower  price
acceptable to the seller.

Part Four:
Concerning Things Not Sold or Bought

42.  It   is  unlawful to sell free    people,  or to sell   a   believer to a
non-believer.  It is also unlawful to sell  relatives or things  that are in a
charitable trust. In general anything that  can not be  owned can not be sold.
Also things that are in position as a trust or acting for another. Also things
that are not controlled can not be sold, an escaped slave,  fish in the river,
birds in the sky, or gazelle (wild animals) in the wild.

43. Also  it is illegal to sell   what is illegal,  for  example dead animals,
animal in its blood (not slaughtered legally), what was killed by a lion, what
was slaughtered for the idols, the meat of poisonous animals (unless it is for
purposes other  than human  consumption). Also vultures  meat  . Also meat  of
snakes, lions, killer plants, and the many  other poisonous meats and flesh of

44.  It is illegal to sell an unknown when the payment is  due, like a sale of
an  item  without  having  its  description before  the  price  is determined.
Examples are:  the off-spring without its mother  (here they are talking about
things like domestic animals), fruits before they are  on the tree, or milk in
the breast, essences (missk) in the bottle, or honey in the jar!

45.  Not legal to sell  common use items such  as roads, water ways, or common
wilderness if no improvement was  made to it  nor effort was made to transport

46.   Can not sell pregnant  without its child or mother  without new born for
fear that the new born might starve to  death (could be talking about domestic
animals again!). Also can not sell tool of destruction to one  who is to cause
destruction, like a knife to a thief, or right  of way to one  who is known to
misuse it (zoughaly).

47.  If one sells what is not legal mixed with things  that are legal to sell,
it is up to the buyer to accept one and refuse  to pay for the other. Example,
if one sells two as slaves  but one of them was  free, the buyer can refuse to
pay for the free person since he is not legal to sell!  [Here they go again!]

48.  If one buys an item to be used as charitable trust or to be given away as
charity,  he  can not sell   it  back unless   he can   prove that  he  became
impoverished after his initial decision.

49.  If one sells a house that is not his, and if the  buyer not knowing built
a structure on the property. The original owner can decide what to do since it
reverts   to him. He   can allow the  sale to  stand if  he  gets paid what he
considers the  value. If he  decide to claim his home  back,  he can choose to
remove the structure or pay a fair price for it an leave it standing.

50.  The would be buyer also has  a choice to buy  or remove what he added and
take back the original price he paid.

51.  A guardian or  agent is not allowed to  buy any of  the properties of the
person in their custody.

52.  A ruler is not allowed  to buy a moving  or fixed property from the state
he rules  unless he pays fair  market  price and the   approval or the seller,
otherwise it shall be taken away and put for public use.  This also applies to
using agents to do such transactions.

53.  It is unlawful to use false/unrealistic conditions  for sale. Example, if
one says that if this cow gives birth and  its off-spring also gives birth, it
is considered an unrealistic condition of sales. Another example if one says I
sell you this house for fifty if you sell me your slave for twenty, again this
is considered unrealistic condition.  Another example, if  one says I sell you
this salve for 10 cash or 10 deferred, it is unrealistic condition (because he
is equating cash with deferred payment)!

Part Five:
Concerning What Is Undesirable and Not Allowed to Sell

54.  It is undesirable to sell what can cause  harm, like separating a servant
(woman) and her  children,  especially if  they did   not reach legal   age. A
servant and his brothers, a servant and his wife and children. Also selling of
urban (city dweller) to un-urban (villager) and vice versa.

55.  It is also  undesirable to tell one  who already bought  and paid,  I can
sell you something better for even lower price.

56. It is  also undesirable to  tell one who is selling  an item for a benefit
(stress selling) that he  has to buy  it back little  by  little for a  higher

57.  It is undesirable to  hold sales on  Sundays or on the  days of the Lords
Feasts, but if a sale was held on those days, it is to be completed.

58.  It is undesirable to inform the seller  (falsely) that his product is not
in demand to gain advantage and drive the price lower.

59.  If the seller detects that (he is  being deceived) he  can choose (not to

60.  It  is undesirable to  tell exaggerated sales  reports  and to  buy for a
price  and sell to partners  for a higher  price, like if  one buys for 10 and
sells to his partners for 20.

61. Every thing based on deceit in buying or selling is undesirable.

62.   It is unlawful  to fix prices  or control supplies to   drive prices up.
Also   it is unalwful to   control essentials supply  to  drive its prices up.
Examples of essentials are food, drinks, clothes, houseing, and what is needed
for maintaining profession (light industry).

Part Six:

63.  If a negotiation develops, repeat sales for same price is desirable.
Repeat sale for lower or higher prices is not desirable. But if the product
develops a defect, it can be sold for lower price as if it was a different

64.  If the item looses some of its value, it is possible to reduce the price
proportional to loss of value if negotiation develops. If the product looses
all value, all negotiations are ceased.

65.  If Gold (meaning valuables) were found in a hidden place in a house
after it was sold, these valuables belong to the previous owner (the one that
sold it).

Part Seven:
Money Orders/Financial Guarantees

66.  It is improper to have a financial order unless both the one giving and
the one receiving such order agree to such arrangement. It require the proof
of financial ability of the one giving the order and the approval of the
receiver of the order to accept such in lieu of money.

67.  If the one making the financial order does not have the funds to cover
it, it is up to the receiver to accept or reject the transaction. If he
accepts, it is assumed that they agree on a future time when the funds will
become available.

68.  If the order is through a third party the rights of the receiver are the
responsibility of the third party (like a lending institution or a bank

69.  If a seller uses a financial institution to complete a sale, and if the
buyer returns the product the money reverts to the financial institution and
not the buyer.

70.  But if it was returned partially or fully because of a fault, the seller
owes the money to the financial institution/third party.


                                      Pages From Church History
                                      Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                        Concerning Forced Actions, Extortion/Coercion
                                                  Chapter 35

1.  It  is illegal to Force one  to depart the faith.  It is desirable  if one
tolerate pain  for  maintaining the  faith. If  he dies in  order to  keep his
faith, he becomes a martyr. And if he survives,  he is called a confessor, his
rank  is second only  to the martyrs  and is more  closer to the martyrs as he
endures more and believes more.

2.  If one is being forced to commit wrong deeds or disobey commandment, it is
recommended that one  endures the  pain and  do not  disobey the commandments,
especially if the wrong involves killing or fornication.

3.  It is not proper to accept forced action without  enduring the pain and/or
harm and it is expected to resist more if the wrong  deed is greater. There is
punishment that awaits those who cause disobedience or force the commitment of

4.  If  one is being forced to   commit killing or  fornication, one  ought to
resist and in particular with one that is forbidden from marriage.

5.  If one is being forced to sell what he owns or buy what he does not desire
to buy, to rent what he does not  want to rent  or lease out  what he does not
want  to lease out, he  is being forced. If  he  can later  own choose let him
choose what he desires to leave things as are or to break the forced

6.  The one who is forced  is a guarantor  of what is  committed to him. If it
spoils or is damaged he is responsible for it!

7.  If  after being forced, he  has  a choice,  he  should deal  fairly in the
situation selling, buying, or accepting the situation as is!

[8-12  Ommitted]


13. Anything taken  by  force/extorted has to be  returned  five folds, or  at
least four folds  as  mentioned in the  Torah  (bible, probably  referring  to
Zakeous promise to  the Lord). The book of  tatalloss (Kings Laws) chapter  39
states  that the thing that is  taken by force has  to be returned back. If it
exists no more, a similar  item is returned,  if the similar  can not be found
the fair value is given for the item based on the value  at the time of taking
it and accounting for any change (increase) of value at the time of the trial.

14.  The embezzler is a guarantor of what he  took by force, he is responsible
for any loss. If he changes the item  he took by  force, he is responsible for
compensating for the full value at the time the forced action was committed.

15.  If it was a domestic  animal and he fattened it  or a slave and he taught
him a trade, when it is returned back it is up to the original owner to accept
the benefit (increase in value) or donate the increase.

16.  If they disagree about  the value of the increase  in value, the word  of
the  owner is taken. If  the item spoils or is  damage while in the control of
the one  who took it by   force, he is responsible  for  the loss. But  if the
damage is out of his control, he is not responsible !!!!  [I dont understand
last statement]

17.  If the item was money, it is desired to donate any accrued interest when
it is returned back!

18.  If one damages the clothes of another, he owes the  loss of value, but if
it is beyond repair he owes the price of a similar one.

19.  If  one takes a  white piece of  cloth by force and dyes  it. He owes the
price of a similar value item, or if he returns it,  he owes the cost of dying
it again.

20.  If one sells, donates, frees, give to a charitable trust, allow to marry,
or marries what he extorted/coerced he owes its return. The difference between
forced action and extortion is that  in the first one  owes value in the other
he owes value and penalty!

21.  If he can not pay compensation at once, he has to pay  what he has of its
value and pay the rest of it in installment payments.

22.  If he donated or  gave to a charitable  trust what he extorted, the owner
is entitled  to an agreement stating  his rights and he can  choose to ask for
compensation or bless the charitable status of the item which was taken.

23.  If he extorter allowed  marriage or married what  was extorted, the owner
can request the value immediately or in installments.


                                      Pages From Church History
                                      Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                         Concerning Rentals & Long Term Lease for Use
                                                  Chapter 36

1. Rental is the   cost  of use. Rental    contract is  a use  contract   with
compensation. What  can be sold for  a price can be rented  for a price. It is
possible to exchange use for use.

2. It is legal to  rent anything of use  and is valid for  any two parties who
can engage in a sale contract.

3.   It is not proper unless  the renter and  renting  agent (owner) agree and
both the use and rent price are both known and achievable.

4.  The use can be measure by time or distance. For example  a house is rented
for residence (for a period of time) and a  riding animal is rented for travel
a certain amount of time or a certain distance.

5.  If the rental is for use it should be stated as such. For example a tailor
can be rented to sew a robe or an animal rented to carry a load.

6.  Also rental can be based on a benefit. For example a  man rents a piece of
Egyptian agriculture land, the rental is completed when the  water of the Nile
covers it and it produces harvest.

7.  The renting agent (owner) has to provide what makes it usable. For example
the key to  the house to be  able to enter and use  it. He also has to prevent
what makes it unusable, and also to provide necessary accessories, for example
a saddle for the rental animal.

8.  But other tools are  responsibility of the renter, for  example a bail and
robe to use the well.

9.  It is  improper to  rent illegal items   such  a women  who  weep (an  old
Pharonic  custom to bring  weepers to  funerals to lead  the  women in weeping
their loss), and sorcerers. Also  it is illegal to  rent money because this is
high interest lending.

10.  The  rental is due  based on agreed conditions  or what is  customary for
similar situations,  but to accelerate   payment it has  to  be for acceptable
agreed on reasons. It  is not for the  bleacher,  tailor, baker, and those  in
similar  professions to ask for  their  wages before they  complete their work
unless there is a prior agreement to the contrary.

11.  The owner of a house has the right to receive the rent without asking for
it even if the renter did not  start to reside in the  house yet. Rent is paid
daily unless it is agreed or commonly collected monthly.

12.  A tradesman  can hold  an item  until he  is paid for  his  work, like  a
bleacher (holding a dress) or a jeweler (holding a piece  of jewelry) until he
is paid.

13.  If the item is damage without intention to cause damage, the tradesman is
not responsible, but he looses his wages.

14.  If one rents an item and it is damaged while in his possession and if the
damage in unintentional he is not responsible for the damage.

15.  But if the damage is due to misuse, he  is responsible. For example if it
was   forbidden to expose  it to  fire and he  did  expose  it  to  fire he is

16.  If the renter agrees  to avoid certain  uses of the  rental house and  he
does he is responsible. For example if he agree not to do grass and he does he
is responsible.  [Are they taking about growing  grass or smoking pot! (Arabic
la yaamal fi almanzel hasheshaan!!!)]

17.  If a ship captain exceeds weight capacity or sails in bad weather without
the permission of the owner he is responsible (for the damage/loss)

18.  If a man takes a  stone to carry or to  carve and he  broke it because of
lack of experience he is responsible otherwise he is not.

19.  If a rat damages material given to the tailor (to be made into cloths) he
is responsible. Also if  one pushes something  that belongs to another even if
he did not mean it is considered negligence.

20.  If the renter or worker could defend the property from forced robbery and
he does not he is responsible.

21.  If an  owner rents out an item  that is damaged  or can cause damage  and
does not tell the renter about the damage he is responsible  for the loss. For
example renting cracked  storage containers or a pasture  whose grass or water
are harmful.

22.  If  one is paid to watch  or guard an  item he is responsible  for losses
caused by neglecting the duties of the job.

23.  It  is possible to rent a  house without having a clear  use in mind, but
any use should not cause the  building any harm or  change what it is intended
for  without permission. For example if  the building is  intended for a dairy
product shop (dokaan  labaan), it can not  be used  as  shop for  food cooking
(dokaan tabaakh).

24. It is  possible to lease  agriculture land without  declaring  the type of
crops as long as the crops planted are customary for similar land.

25.  If the lease expires, it is up to  the owner to  ask the renter to remove
any  additions to building or any   crop planted or to   accept renewal of the
lease. If the owner doe not want removal at the end of  the lease contract, he
has to pay for any additions.

26.  It  is  legal for  the owner to  sell  the leased  item while still under
contract and settle the rental difference unless it is agreed that a condition
of sale is to make the lease contract null and void.

27.  If the item is  sold to other  than the renter  with full disclosure, the
renter has the right to complete the time period of the lease.

28.  If the potential buyer was not informed  of lease contract, he can choose
to continue with the sale or break the agreement.

29.  It   is  allowed to  rent riding  animals  for riding   or carrying loads
according  to what is  customary for similar  situations without declaring who
will ride or what types of loads to be transported.

30.  What the renter agrees to type or amount can  not be changed unless it is
substituted for with a less harmful item (item with  less impact). For example
if the contract stipulates transporting a ton of cotton, he can not under same
contract transport a ton of iron.  Also if he  changes the weight of cotton it
has to be for something weighing less.

31.  If one leases an  animal  for traveling a   certain distance, he can  not
increase the distance traveled unless he informs the owner  in advance and has
his approval for the increase.

32.  If the renter removes/uses any  of the supplies  provide with the animal,
he  has to replace  what is removed or  compensate the  owner unless they have
agreed otherwise.

What Voids A Rental Contract

33.  If  the rental  period  expires, the contract is   void, and item becomes
due. Also if the contract is spoiled faased (violated)

34.  If one rents a house and finds out that it has defects  that can harm the
use  or the user,   the contract is  void  unless  a correction is  made. this
applies to all utilities.

35.  If the renter or the  owner dies, the contract  is void if it was limited
to the person alone, but if it involves others it continues.

36.  If one rents  a house monthly for a  dinaar without stipulating length of
lease contract, the owner after a month notice terminate the contract.

37.  It is proper to write a  lease contract for a  fixed number of days after
which the contract terminates.

38.  If the rental property is taken away or became  unusable, the contract is
accordingly terminated.

39.  Visible reasons/excuses can terminate a contract  and stop the rents from
the time the reason  is evident. Reasons The  sum  of all visible reasons  for
terminating contracts is the ability to use no more.

40.  Some of what makes a rental property no longer usable includes debts owed
by the owner causing him to relinquish it or if he  suddenly decides to donate
the item or put it in a charitable trust.

41.  If one who made himself or his riding animal for rent escapes, the renter
can   search  for him  and  if  he  finds  him he  can   turn him to  the rule
(authority). The authority can make him  sign a debt  certificate for what the
renter had to pay, like if he had to feed the animal in his absence.

42.  The   same applies if the  renter  can no  longer use  a  house he rented
because he had to move, or  one who could not use  a riding animal because the
journey was canceled, or one who rented a shop and could not use it because he
lost his capital, or one  who rented (hired) a  breast feeder and the baby for
which the service was needed died, or the baby refused to  feed, or the feeder
refused to render the service!

43.   It is possible  for a renter to  rent what he  rented  to another for an
amount equal,  less than, or greater  than the rent  he pays unless there is a
condition in the contract to the contrary.

44.   If one deposits  a  collaterak because of   bad (crop) years  and if the
situation turn to good  (crops) years he can claim  the collateral back.  Also
if the bad crop year is  the last year of  the rental contract, the collateral
can be waved.

45.  If one puts a collateral for  an item, he  is not responsible for extreme
acts of God (nature) but only for customary ones (losses).

46.  The one  who puts collateral and  shares  in the business shares  also in
profit and loss.

47.  If one  is guarantor of   an orchard and  decides  to move out, he  still
responsible for it for the full period of the guarantee.

48.  If  it was agreed that he  takes care of  it, he has  to find a qualified
replacement to do the work (in his place).

49.  If some rented a place and were absent for many years and as a result the
necessary maintenance work,  like roof repair, was  neglected; it is valid for
the owner  to consult some of  the leaders of the  community (wegooh) and what
they decide to be done shall be done at renters expense.

50.  If the  work was disrupted because  of  earthquake (acts  of nature), the
owner is responsible for the outcome.

51.  Rental can be to the end of life of the renter,  for long term leases for
use (hikr) or to an agreed  period not to exceed  30 years.  [Is that where we
got the 30 years mortgage concept!]

52.   If one is a guardian,  he is prohibited from both  regular and long term
lease privilege for    the items that  he  is  charged with  as   part  of the
guardianship. That also includes any attempt to use an agent to act for them.

53. If one  of the honorable people  is not able to  pay his taxes, it  can be
paid through the  sale of some property  in which case it  is the duty of  the
ruler/tax collector (raiis) to hold a council to determine in writing that the
sale was necessary. The council shall be in the  presence of bishops, deacons,
and laymen (as witnesses).


                                      Pages From Church History
                                      Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                Concerning Highways, Roads, Courts, Home Renovations,
                                    Waterways, and Water Channels
                                                  Chapter 37

1. It is not allowed for one who is in joint  ownership of a house to renovate
without asking the opinion (approval) of the other partners.

2. A common wall can not be removed or  built without the opinion (permission)
of the partner.

3.  It is not legal for one to build an oven or a stove  next to a common wall
because the fire might damage the (common) wall.

4.  If one builds a kitchen that can send smoke upward and can harm the people
in the higher  floors of the building,  he can be  prevented from  sending the
smoke up unless there is a prior agreement.

5.  It is not proper for the people who live on upper floors to throw water or
trash  down, because this  can harm the other  residents on  the lower floors.
The others  can prevent doing  such things because it is  not for one to do in
his  house what can harm  his  neighbors. This is applicable   to all kinds of
stinks!   [I wish people in  developing countries can  follow these simple old

6.  One can raise a ladder next to a common wall if the  ladder does not cause

7.  If a place is naked (lacks privacy), no one can  object to building a high
wall to give it privacy. Also, no one should prevent his neighbor from opening
a door way to have  access to the street  as long as  the new opening does not
harm the street.

(Concerning Distance and Spacing Between Buildings and Orchards)

8.   If one wants to  build a fence/wall it  should be at  least one foot away
from his neighbor. If  one builds a new  house it should  be at least six feet
from the neighbors. To build an underground hiding place,  it should be as far
as its depth  from the neighbors.  Digging a well should  be at  least one baa
(yard) from the neighbors except if his digging in the  same location, this is
not advisable. If  one plants fig or  olive trees, he should  be at least nine
feet from the neighbors. Other trees can be only five feet away.

9.  If one has a tree in his house  property and the root  of the tree extends
to the  neighbors , the  authority can ask  the owner  of the  tree  to cut it
(remove it).

10. If one builds a house facing  another house, they  should be a distance of
at least twelve feet from base to top all the way.

11.  If the house increases in  height, the neighbor can  do likewise. He also
can add windows for both new and old buildings.

12.  Even if one satisfies the twelve  feet rule, he still  is required not to
block the view of his  neighbor. If the view  includes see side, one should be
able to see the sea side without having to bend.

13.   If the distance   between  the building  is   hundred feet or more,  the
blocking rule is waved.

14.  If one builds  a house on  a  court or  narrow street, he  has to  keep a
distance of twelve feet as a minimum access and he can not add it to his house
(public use).  If  there is more than  the minimum distance,  it is advised to
leave it for the city (for future improvements).

15.  If two houses were already build  without keeping the recommended minimum
distance. None can be allowed to increase building height or add new windows.

16. If the distance  is no less than  ten feet (fails the previous condition),
they can open small windows to improve lighting conditions only.

(Part Concerning Renovation and Rights of Service)

17.  If one  is renovating (rebuilding)  a fallen house, he  is not allowed to
build it higher or in  a way that  can block the  light or  cause harm to  the
neighbor, and if the changes can cause harm he  is required to rebuild exactly
according to old form.

18.   One who is entitled to  more utilities  in  his house (water,  sewer, ..
etc.)  can choose to receive  such  higher level as  long  as it does not over
burden the utilities (affect the rights of others).

19.  If one boards openings  for lighting for  a period of  ten years or more,
the neighbor  can make improvements  to  his building including building  more
floors even if they encroach on the other, because he relinquished his rights.

20.  But  if the  first  opened the   light passages  before the   latter made
improvements to  his, the latter  can not make  improvements the encroaches on
the rights of the first.

21. If you allow me to  place wooden building elevators  on your wall so I can
complete renovation or addition to my  home as a favor, and  if I do remove my
wood within a ten years period as required and fill the holes  , I continue to
have the right of service to do the same again. But if I do not remove my wood
within ten years,  you have the right  of confiscation  (since I neglected  to
restore things to original condition). [It took much longer to do construction
work than it takes these days!]

22.  Now, I can come back 20 years  from the time I  used the privilege and do
the same again with no objection (regardless of the previous behavior).

23.  Boundaries and property  judgments are valid  for long periods of time up
to 30 years!

24.   One is not supposed to  pile trash on a  wall owned by another unless he
has approval of the owner.

25.  Also,  it is no legal  to send  smoke  from a kitchen   or a bath without

26.  If it is necessary to repair a common (joint) utility, each has to repair
his portion to  the neighbors  boundary line, (then  the  neighbors takes over
until all repair is done).

27.  If one of the  partners  pays of his own   funds to repair a joint  canal
(water channel) he  is entitled to request  fair share from the other partners

28.  If your wall leans 1/2 foot  into my property  you are required to repair

29. If one opens a viewing area in a  wall that is not his,  he is required to
return it to original condition at his own expense.

(Part: Water Rights):

30.  Those who own low lands have a duty to facilitate the flow of water down,
in  return they  gain the right  of using  all  the benefits  of water passage
(water and rich soil).

31.  Watering that  is  regulated: once a  summer  (season), once a month,  or
according to whatever schedule is to be used according to regulation only.

32.  Also roads that are regulated can only be  used according to regulations,
like a certain hour or a  certain number of times  per day or night. Use shall
cease until the appointed time for use comes again.

33.  If  a water spring dries  up and after a  period replenishes  itself, its
usage shall be according to the past rules.

34.  If one allows you to use his  water source, he has to  give you the right
of way  to reach  the water  source. This  right can   only be used  for  that

35.  If you give one privilege  to use your land as  a pasture for his animal,
he is entitled to the privilege of building a hut also.

[The manuscript skips 36 .. 42?]

43.  If one who received  a privilege passes such benefit  to another it is up
to the owner  to  prevent it within  10  years otherwise  it becomes  a  given
right. If the owner is absent he is given a total of 20 years to object.

44.  But if the original owner was not aware of it (unauthorized use), it does
not becomes a right   unless 30 years have  passed.  But if  he was absent,  a
number of years equal to the period of his absence is added.

45.  If one was incarcerated even in his own house, there is no time limit for
his right to request restoration.

46.  Mobile belongings held  in possession for  three years with no one making
demands for it becomes property of the holder!

47.   If  I  sell a  parcel  of land  with the  promise   to provide  means of
delivering water, the contract remains valid if I meet my obligation otherwise
the sales contract is not valid.

48.  If the old owner could not prevent the passage of water through his land,
the  new   owner can not  change   the situation (he  has   to accept what was
customary before he bought it!)

49. No one should do renovation which can cause harm to others.

50.   Every right (privilege)  not used for 10  years if present,  20 years if
absent, is lost  except the way to the  tomb (right of  burial!) which  is not
limited by time.

51.  These periods are increased by the time  of imprisonment for prisoners of
war or the time of sickens for those who suffer mental disease or become ill.

52.  If one is under arrest even for a crime  does not loose his rights (given
extra time as in 51 above).

53.   If one has a right,  he has all  the benefits that are  a  result of it.

54.  It  is  illegal for anyone  to  spoil (cause  damage) to city  streets or
courts.  One  who  does  that is  responsible   to return it to   its original

55.  The space (distance) between houses (buildings) is at least 12 feet, from
bottom to top.

56.  It is not for anyone to block the view of the  sea from another unless he
already 100 feet away.

57. If  one wants to build a  fence/wall it should  be at least one  foot away
from his neighbor. If  one builds a  new house it  should be at least six feet
from the neighbors. To build an underground hiding  place, it should be as far
as its  depth from the  neighbors. Digging a  well should be  at least one baa
(yard) from the neighbors. If one  plants fig or olive trees,  he should be at
least nine  feet from the neighbors.  Other trees can be  only five feet away.

58.  To settle property rights, rulers  have to refer  to property records and
what is customary and known.

59.  If  a road is spoiled  (damaged) because of  earthquake or water (flood),
the   property owner closest to the   damgaed area is   obligated to return it
original condition.

60.  A common water channel is to be  repaired jointly, each user what belongs
to him (his share).

61.  One who   repairs old houses should   not excceed its  original  form and
should  not obstruct the  lighting of neighboring  properties  unless there is
agreement to do the changed form.

(Part What  Is Mentioned in  the Kings  Rules Concerning (Property Protection)

62.  If one leave on the road an object that cause harm, he is responsible for
correcting the damage. But if he caused partial damage, he is responsible only
for a part.

63.  If another forced him to this action, he is not responsible.

64.  Also, if the  one that was harmed did  knowingly pass, the one who placed
the object is not responsible.

65.  Also if the object is (on a road) within the  boundaries of his property,
he is not responsible.

66. If a wall tilts towards the road and the owner was asked  to remove it, he
is responsible for any damage caused  by the tilted wall  if he did not remove
it within  a reasonable period considered  sufficient  to complete the removal

67.  If  the wall tilts towards a  home, the owner of  that home is one to ask
for the removal.

68.  If the  wall was common  between three, each owes  one third of the  cost
(equal cost for equal shares!)

69.  All the above mentioned can be referred to authority of violations occur.

70.  Land that is not useful for  lack of water or too  much water (swamp) and
no  sound of people  is  heard in it from   near by development  (has not been
considered for building   site for a  long  time) can  be  claimed by  one who
intends to make it usable.

71.  If it has the remains of buildings it can be renovated and  a roof put on

72.  If it  does not have   remains of building can  be  fenced and a gate  is
constructed for the fence.

73.  If it was farm land it can be reclaimed and water is bought into it.

74.  If there is potential for wells or springs they can be dug.

75. If there is abandoned mines it can be re-established.

(Part: Misc.:)

76.  What can not be subdivided like bathrooms, mills, or wells has to be sold
to one of the partners in a joint property. Or it can be leased if one decides
to  sell out because   a partner has first   claim rights before outsiders are
considered as potential buyers.

77.  If the  partner was informed  and decided not to buy  or  lease, the next
door neighbor is given  the option. If  he also refused  it is  recommended to
sell to a  charitable cause or to form  a charitable  trust before considering
outside buyers.

78.   Priority  is to  partners   according to  their  shares, then  neighbors
according to their needs   and/or potential harm  caused  them (by a  sale  to

79.  If the owner already engaged in a contract with an outsider and it became
known to one of those who  have priority, he can  match the offer and it shall
be ruled in his favor and he shall get it (the shared utility) and the outside
contract shall be considered null and void.  If they disagree  the word of the
priority person is taken.

80.  If  the one who has priority  is late in  meeting contract conditions, he
looses his first claim right.

81.  The same is true if (municipal) trial (related to property settlement) is
delayed without an acceptable excuse.

82.  If the one who has first right of claim dies, his  claim is longer valid.
But if one of the other parties dies, the first claim right is still valid.


                                      Pages From Church History
                                      Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                                      Concerning  Money Lending
                                                  Chapter 38

1.  A   loan contract  is  valid  between  those who    can  legally engage in
transactions related to that fund. It is not  legal unless the amount of money
is  specified and interest amount is  also specified as  a shared interest! or

2.  It  is undesirable to have  different interest amounts for different types
of loans because this can encourage greed./cheating.

3.  It is not  proper to  refuse to accept   payment prematurely, it is  valid
however to limit the time for which it is extended.

4.  A loan operator (officer) shall act like a businessman. He should not sell
(lend) for  lower than  going  rate, or later dues   date, or change terms  of
already extended  contract. He also  should not buy  loans for a price greater
than the value of similar transactions or what is  common and customary (going
rate). He also should not risk loosing the money by carrying  it in his travel
or treating it as personal funds.   He also should  not sell funds that exceed
the capital   or buy loans  more than  the ability of   the business.  All his
actions shall be with the permission of the owner of the capital.

5.  If  the operator travels  for business, he is  entitled  to travel expense
according to agreement with his employer. If they do not have a travel expense
agreement, he should charge based  on a percentage  of the profit and if there
is no profit he is paid from owner capital funds.

6.  The loan operator is the  deputy (agent) of the owner  of the capital , he
has  the final  word in determining   loans and interest rates  as  long as he
represents the owner interest properly and there is no proof to the contrary.

7.  It is preferred if  there is a written contract  stating capital funds and
expected gain and the percentage of profit to be  paid the operator. The owner
can choose to terminate the agreement as he will. Also, he operator can choose
not to  continue with the task  but if possible  wait until the owner can take
care of his business or hire a replacement.

8.  If one  of the parties dies  or looses his  mental power  the (employment)
contract is null and void.

9.  It  is also possible for the  owner and operator  to share (in the lending
business, become partners). But if one asks  to pull out before partnership is
executed, it is valid to do so.

10.  If the lending business is owed money, the operator  has to collect it at
once. If it owes money the operator has to pay out before everything else (can
not  take profit before  paying debts!)   [Tell that  to US  Treasury and Wall


                                      Pages From Church History
                                      Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                            Concerning (Public) Confession/promise
                                                  Chapter 39

(First: The Confessor):

1.  If  one  who is free  and  of full  age  confesses a  crime   he should be
punished, and if he confesses a debt he is required to pay it.

2.   It is not proper  for one who is  under  restriction/detention because of
young age   or mental  illness  to  confess  a   crime or  debt.   (It  is the
responsibility of the  accuser  to prove legal   age or soundness of  mind  to
obtain confession).  It is  proper   to ask confession    from those  who  are
restricted/confined for any  other reason and  can receive punishment or asked
for payment.

3.  If the detention was for bad behavior confessing debts is improper. If the
detention is caused by failing to pay previous debts, it is not proper to hear
the confession immediately, but wait until the previous debts are paid.

4.  A  slave can  confess  debts and  if  it was without permission  (from his
master), he owes it when he is freed. But if it was by his masters permission,
the master owes the money.  Otherwise, it can  be taken from his earnings, but
if he has no earnings as a slave, he owes when he is freed.

(Second: Who Receives Confession):

5.   The one who receives confession  must be of sound  mind and he should not
impede or falsify the confession. He should not receive personal gain from the
confession.  In confession  related  to a  womans  pregnancy the  receiver  of
confession is not required to accept (verify) the facts.

6.  Funds  in the form  of  inheritance or  will  provided by one  who confess
(causing) the pregnancy are accepted if the child is live born.

7.  If money is confessed for a young or mentally  ill person it shall be made
certain they receive it.

8.  if money is confessed for a slave it belongs to his master!

9.  If money is for a monastery it belongs to those who reside therein.

(Third: What Is Confessed):

10.  It does not have to be built  or owned by  the confessor. It is proper to
confess unknowns or not   owned. If it  is  owned, the confession is  null and
void. For example  if one says my house  which is my  own and  I reside  in it
belongs to so and so, he is contradicting  himself because what belongs to one
can  not belong to another  at the same  time. Also the item  has to be in his
possession (under his control). One can not release the slave of another.

(Fourth: Wording and Meaning of Confession):

11.  Wording: If one says: I confess that I owe so and so such and such amount
or if he says: Trust me I owe so and so,  or if he says:  I do not deny that I
owe so  and so all  these are common wordings  of confession acceptable by the
public. If he says I confess and will not  deny that I  ..  this is wording of
confession now and in the future. But if he says: take weigh this or cash this
... these are words of sarcasm and can not be treated as confession.

12.  Meaning: If one confesses an item or money  owed without specification of
value or amount, he has to  follow with quantitative  short description. If he
calls it much he has to say how much. The least of much is ten Dirhams!

13.  If  he says Dirhams,  the least is  three.  If he  says so so (Kaza Kaza)
Dirhams, the least of which  is eleven.  If he says  so and so (Kaza Wa  Kaza)
the least of which  is twenty one.  If he says he has  on me or  he has in  my
guarantee he is confessing a  debt. But if he  says: In my possession for him,
or in a box in  my house for him,  or in my hand   for him he is confessing  a
deposit or a pawned item.

14.  If  one  adds  to a   word of confession   a   word of full  or   partial
contradiction, the confession is fully or partially false.  For example if one
says: this house for you but the furnishings for your son or  if he says: this
house is for you but you can not reside in it or if he says: this house is for
you but  you  have to pay  for  it  All these are  contradicting  confessions.
Confession is  also  not  valid  if   the context  proves    to be  false   or
unrealistic. Like if one in a confession refers to one as his son and they are
close in age, or if he says this is yours but it is known to the one receiving
the confession reasons to the  contrary. Also a  confession can be disputed by
the legal heirs.

                                      Pages From Church History
                                      Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                          Concerning Financial Wills
                                                  Chapter 40

1.  The will is the stated opinion of the individual who issues it for what to
be done with his wealth after his death. and it is referred  to in the sayings
and actions of  the profits and wise men.  For example, Isiah the prophet told
king Hezekiah on the command of the Lord God: Advise your children because you
will surely  die. Many wise  men advised a multitude  of people to will things
for the poor and to set charitable trusts for those in need  and those who are
not in need also (charitable gifts).

2. The will takes effect only after the person dies, it has no effect while he
is still alive as the Apostle Paul said.

3.  Wills can be  in writing or  without (verbal). If  it is in writing, it is
complete if it is in  the hand writing  of a scribe or  the author of the will
and in the presence of  witnesses, and the  will and  their  witness are on  a
single original  (no copies) document. The  witnesses can be  seven or five if
possible. Three or  at least two witnesses  are acceptable (but not  desired).
It should include the date  it is written, the names  of the beneficiaries. He
says in the will I made so and so my heirs in his own  hand writing. If he was
not a writer the witnesses can  do the writing for him.  It should mention the
author of the will the beneficiaries and the one who wrote it. The beneficiary
and executor should  not write the   will. A will not in   writing is as  such
because of strong reasons and must have witnesses.

4.  It is not legal to have a will written by the beneficiary.

5.  It  is  required  that necessary expenses   following  death be taken  out
first. This includes funeral, burial, outstanding loans, and taxes owed.

6.   It is not  proper to ask  about the execution  of  the will for nine days
following the death (of the author of the will).

7.   A will is null  and void if  the author of the will   retracts it (in his
life) by firm  word or deed.   For example, if one  sells a property , frees a
slave, or marries a maid. In general the action of the author of a will to rid
himself of a property which is the subject of  a will revokes  the will.  Also
if the object of the will is given to the beneficiary before  the death of the
author, the will is revoked. Also if he gets rid of it  in his life it can not
be claimed (by beneficiaries) after his death.

8.  If superseded by another which is  more recent than  the first even if the
more recent is verbal and the earlier was in writing.

9.  If the  author leaves debts which  exceed the  value  of the items in  the

10.  It is also null  and void if  the beneficiary violates conditions of  the
will or conspires to kill the author of the will using poison or otherwise.

11.  If the will is  related to succession  to  a throne  and the successor is
different  than  the natural  heir without  a  witnessed will  that  has clear
explanation of the deviation with clear  statement of the  name of the author,
the beneficiary, and the object.

12. Authoring a will is proper only if the author is of full age, free, and of
sound mind as  was explained in the Chapter  on Custody. If the beneficiary of
the will is not of legal age, a custodian (executor) is appointed and named in
the will.

13.  As long as the heir is a child (not of full  age) he is no different from
the slaves although he is the master of them  all. He is  under the custody of
the custodians until the time appointed by his father!

14.  If one who  is under age, or  under custody, or  a slave, or not of sound
mind makes a will, it is not valid even if at  the time of execution he became
qualified (because it was done under wrong conditions). But if a person who is
blind from birth or later in life is not restricted from authoring a will.

15.  The born  dumb or deaf can  not author a will. But  if he became  dumb or
deaf later in life   if he can  write, he  can author  a will. The  (mentally)
disturbed can not. also the slave unless he has his masters permission.

16.  If one is a skilled writer and  wants to write  a will stating the rights
of his children  let him do  that (in his  own writing).  Also if he  wants to
write a will concerning the rights of his wife or others that are from outside
(immediate family) let him do that  and by the signatures  of the witnesses it
shall be known that it is true.

17. If he changes his mind about what he stated in the will, he has to burn it
down, he then has to make a  new will with his latest  opinion. He should have
seven or five witnesses and he needs to mention to them that he had a previous
will and he changed his mind as stated in the new will.

18.  If he left a property for one and then gave it to another in the new will
without mentioning   that the first choice  was  no longer his will,  they all
share the property!

19.  The author of a will can add or delete articles in a Separate document as
long as the witnesses  testify and sign  the extensions.  Also, if the  author
does not want the witnesses to know the contents of the will  he can write and
seal it and they shall witness it and put their seals  (sign) at the same time
and be willing to testify to that effect.

20. If it became  known that one  wanted to  add others  to his will,  but his
speech ceased (meaning he  died) before making a  will, they are excluded even
if  they  were  considered.   [Eliminating   fraud through false   claims  not
supported by fact]

21.  If brother (off-spring) own a joint item, there is  no restriction on any
to will his share.

22.  If one had two wives  (not simultaneously according  to our faith) and he
loved one more than the  other, he is not permitted  to favor the children  of
the one he favored over the children of the other.

23.   It is not  advisable  to have  a beneficiary  one   who is outside  Gods
Commandments: having faith   in other than  God, committing  highway  robbery,
transvestites, or declared prostitutes. This is because the Apostle said: What
communion there   is between believers  and unbelievers.  He commanded   us to
separate ourselves from the likes  of those. But if  the person turn back from
his   infidelity he can be   given what was  willed   to him.  This  has to be
determined before  the will is executed, because  once it is executed there is
return as explained previously.

24.  If one through a will of some inheritance was provoked to object to cause
an  accident as a   result he is not  relieved   of responsibility of what  he
did. But  if he chooses to not  object and to give  his share to another it is
appropriate to do so.

25.   It is legal to include  a prisoner of war  as  a beneficiary hoping that
someday he will   come back and   receive his  inheritance.  The same  is  for
political  prisoners   and exiled  individuals.  They  all   can  claim  their
inheritance when they are freed and return back.

26.  If one has  a son (off-spring) who  was  absent and presumed dead  and he
writes a will giving his inheritance to another,  he can claim his inheritance
even if it was already given to the other.

28.  It  is permissible  to include in  a  will a  pregnant woman without  the
unborn or the unborn without the mother, but he receives nothing  if he is not
live born .

29.  If the will was for an unborn and a twin (meaning multiple birth) happens
instead the item(s) is  divided equally. But  if one is  born dead,  the other
takes all.

30. If the will states a male, he only will inherit.

31. It is permissible to include a slave in a will, if he was free at the time
of execution he  receives the inheritance otherwise  it reverts to his  master
(at the time of execution of the will).

32.  It is not proper unless it is owned by the author of the will.

33.  There  is two opinions about   the value of a  willed  item, some say one
fourth (1/4) of the net worth others say three fourth (3/4) of  the net worth.

34. The first opinion is  according to the kings rules.  If one authors a will
he shall  first leave  what he desires  to  his son  and  to his daughters the
furnishing  (for their marriage) and  divide the rest in  one fourth portions.
If  he  wants to give  alms, it  shall be one  fourth, and  one fourth for his
daughters furnishing. He can do with three fourth (3/4)  of his net worth what
he desires  and give his son  what he desires to  give him. His children shall
receive three fourth (3/4) of what he leaves. If he desires to give more (than
the furnishing) to  his daughter  it  is permissible to do   so. If he has  no
children he can  give his wealth  to anyone he likes  to give it to.  This law
includes both opinions as stated herein and it does not favor one opinion over
the other.

35.  The second  opinion states that it is  permissible for one  to will three
fourth (3/4) of his net worth to charitable cause and  one fourth (1/4) to his

36.  This law states that one can will three fourth  (3/4) of his net worth as
he pleases and one fourth for his undutiful children.  [Seems that this law is
to punish undutiful children by giving them 1/4 instead of the ordinary 3/4 of
net worth]

37.  If one wills some of his wealth to strangers it ought  to be examined. If
he left one fourth (1/4) to his (legal) heirs it  is acceptable (following the
second opinion) but if he left them less than  that the portion given away (to
strangers) is reduced to reach the one fourth (1/4) rule.

38.  It was asked: is it permissible for a man to leave  all his wealth to his
wife if he has no children? and if he does have  children does he have to give
them equal shares? And does he have to give her anything in his will after she
already received her  dowry?  The answer is:  It is permissible  for a  man to
leave any amount for anyone (of his legal heirs) as he likes. 

39.  The second opinion  (paragraph 35) is  favored over  the first (paragraph
34).for the following eight reasons:

First,  The first opinion appeared only  once in the  book of the rules of the
king. The  second opinion appeared  many times over  at the  beginning, in the
middle,  and towards the end of  the book. If  one  appears once and the other
appears many times it is indication that the  later is more acceptable because
of many agreements on it.

40. Second,  The wording in the first  opinion (paragraph 34)  is not clear in
meaning   and it tends  to show  the two  opinions. The wording  of the second
opinion (paragraph 35) seems to be more clear and does only mention the second
opinion. And if something is clear it is more certain.

41.  Third, The first opinion appeared in the beginning of the book (the kings
rules) the second opinion appeared in the beginning, middle, and end.

42.  Fourth, It was mentioned in the same book that a man (person) can do what
he likes with his money. He can do what he wants with  the fourth and the half
(3/4) without restriction.

43.  Fifth, We previously mentioned that a will is a command of God and an act
of wise men, and when the Lord said leave a will He released that saying (made
it a command of  God for us to  follow). He did not restrict  it with  much or
little. Also  when the  wise men advised  authoring  wills they  did not  make
restrictions  except for  indicating what is   more beneficial at the  time of
authoring and  what is more  beneficial at the  time  of execution  as will be
shown later.

44.  Sixth, The mind (logic)  dictates that the wise  shall do with his  money
what he  likes because  it  is his own   property.  He is not   prevented from
selling, forming  a charitable  trust,  donating, or willing  as gift  what he
likes. Accordingly the fourth and the half are both permissible to him.

45.  Seventh, Ones own  benefit is completed by  following the  second opinion
rather than  the  first. Because  one who adheres  to  the second opinion  can
follow the first if he sees benefit in the first  opinion. But one who adheres
to the first can not follow the second if he sees his own benefit in following
the second. 

46.  Eighth, The harm caused by  following the first  opinion is more than the
harm caused by following the  second. Because some  of the off-spring might be
rich and  others might be poor.  By following the second  opinion he can leave
more for his poor children (outside the equal  inheritance shares). But if his
off-spring are all rich, he can (follow the second opinion) and leave more for

47. What can be said in favoring the first opinion is  that one might unfairly
dislike his heirs.  And by following the  first opinion (as  justification for
his actions) he can leave more for charity than he  leaves for his legal heirs
preventing them form  getting his wealth, although such   action is rare.  The
benefactor however can use other ways to channel his  wealth to other than the
legal heirs if he desires to do  so, like giving  to charity, selling, or sell
(meaning symbolically) what he does not want his heirs to receive.

48.  If  one decides to (follow  second opinion) give  one fourth and one half
(3/4)  away not following  the legal heirs rules  , he is  advised to fear God
being close to facing death and distribute this portion to ones who deserve it
according  to  their needs  starting    with off-spring, then   relatives, and
strangers according to need with more given to those who are more needy. He is
advised to be   a good steward  so  he can  be worthy  to hear the  praise and
receive the reward of the just judge.

49.  The  Nazarene   (Christian) should not   give his  money to causes   that
contradict the salvation of his soul. Anything beyond the  fourth and the half
is not legal unless it is approved by the legal heirs  (meaning not to deprive
legal heirs of their legal  inheritance rights). What he  gives in his live to
charitable trusts  and   as  donations should    not be counted  as  part  (of
charitable part) of will.

50.  If  one has  new  legal heirs after  a will  is  authored (which  did not
include them) like new born children males or  females, they become deserving.
If the will was other than off-spring it becomes null and  void. If it was for
off-spring, the new ones share equally with  the ones previously included.  If
the  author   of the will   had  off-spring but  were  excluded, the  right of
inheritance is transferred to the  grand children (because  of he birth of new
off-spring after the authoring of  a will that excludes  children). If the new
legal heirs were  relatives,  and the will  was  for strangers,  the relatives
share  half and strangers the  other half. But if the  will was for relatives,
equal shares is the rule  in distributing to the heirs  listed in the will and
the new  legal heirs not listed  in the will. These are  the rule of executing
wills if new heirs have legal claim after the will is authored.

51.  If one inherits a flock of sheep, he is entitled to all the increases and
responsible for all the losses  even if it is  reduced to one  or none. If one
inherits a house and it is lost to fire, he is entitled  to the land (on which
the house stood).  But if I willed my slave  to you and  I sold him or set him
free or if he dies,  you are entitled to  nothing because if the original item
is gone, so are the residuals (profits).

52.  If one wills a portion of an item, like a third or a fourth then the item
lost some of its  value, the heir  is entitled to  a portion of  the remaining
value proportional to the portion he inherited. If one will  a part of a large
inheritance to one, the heir has to accept what was  stated by the author with
no objection. But if the author  did not specify  exactly which part, the heir
can choose one that  is an average (fair  to others) and causes him particular
harm.  If he  does  not accept the  part given  to  him,  he can   ask and not
prevented from accepting monetary value without argument.

53.  It is valid for one to write a will for the use of  an item for a limited
period of time one,  two, or three years, or  for  a specified portion of  the
revenue  or wages. After  that it reverts back  to  the original owner. If the
beneficiary of this kind  of  will dies, his  legal  heirs do not  inherit the
benefit. The owner  of the item has  full  freedom to sell it   or give it  to
charity any way he chooses after the benefit period is completed.  It is valid
to include  in a  will  a maid without her  unborn  or the unborn  without the
mother.  If a maid is  mentioned in a  will  without mention  of her unborn it
implies the unborn.

Part 5: Concerning the Executor of the Will):

54. Two conditions: Honest and Ability to handle the object of the will:

55.  If the author of  the will did not  designate one, the ruler appoints one
after the death of the author  of the will if  the beneficiary is not of legal

56.  It is  valid to have an executor  for part and not  all of the objects of
the will or for the entire estate. If it is said so and so and so they have to
act together and one can act on behalf of the estate without the permission of
the  other. But If  it was said  either so and  so or so  and so, the one that
accepts and acts first is the executor.  And if it said  so and so then so and
so,  the first has the  right of execution unless he  declines then it goes to
the one named second.

57. If the executor acts regarding an  item in the  will he is responsible for
his actions and  is  not to be  relieved  until the beneficiary  reaches legal
age. He can be relieved through an action of the ruler (authority) if he makes
a request to authority  and get permission to be  relieved after a replacement
is found. What prevents one from executing a  will includes long illness, long
imprisonment, travel, exile,  dishonest actions, incompetence, or proven lacks
in one of the two condition (mentioned  in 54 above). It  is valid for one who
is expelled  for one of  the reasons above to   be reinstated by  order of the
ruler (authority).

58.  Executor    appointed by  the   ruler is  considered  to be    honest and
competent. Relatives are favored over strangers in  executing well, the closer
the better.

59.  It is permissible for one to name his son as executor for his will, a son
on his fathers estate is best steward (Quhramaan).

60.  It is  also permissible to  name own slave  (servant/closest aide) on the
will, he will be to  act his acts (meaning  do exactly like his employer since
he worked for him and knows his methods of dealing!).

61.  If a woman authors a  will on behalf of  her grandchildren she should not
name an executor, because their father is the best executor. But if the father
did not care for his children she can name a guardian  regarding only what she
left for them.

62.   If one did  not  leave a will  and  is survived   by  parents and  other
siblings,  his parents become the executors  of his will, brothers and sisters
are not permitted to object to that.

63.  If one leaves a will, with names  of beneficiaries and executor, and dies
let the   executor receive the wealth  and   distribute it on   the off-spring
without commission (talking about beneficiaries  of full age).  If he did  not
name  an executor, the older of  the off-spring is executor if  he 25 years of
age or older. If none of  them is of  legal age, their uncle (fathers brother)
can be the executor  of the will. If  they had no uncle  (meaning no live one)
the son  of their uncle who is  25 or older can  be the executor. The executor
keeps the book (written will). If they had none and their mother desires to be
the executor, she has to  inform the ruler (authority)  and it has to be  made
certain that she doe not  remarry and she manages  the estate until they reach
legal  age at which  time they are  given their inheritance.   If she does not
seizure to  be  executor, the ruler (authority)  has  to appoint executor  and
guardians for orphans, they are entitled to management fee  based on the value
of the estate. One who is appointed executor by the  author of a will does not
have to post bond, but others might have to.

64.  Boys  affairs are under  the control of guardian to  age 14, girls to age
12. they then under the control of executor of the will until  age 25 at which
time they are full of age and can have full control of their inheritance.

65.  Two opinions concerning exemption from being executor of a will :

First,   If one has  five  or more  children, sons  daughters  or both, can be
exempted from executing a will for  orphans strangers or  relatives. If he had
less  than five  children of his   own he  can  be  forced by ruler  to accept
responsibility as guardian for orphaned relatives or others.

66. Second, One who  accepted to execute a  will can not escape responsibility
but  to continue to be   responsible for the   duties thereof especially if he
caused some incident related to the execution of the will!

67.  It  is legal for a  guardian of orphans to hire   a financial manager for
their inheritance by permission from the ruler (authority).

68.  If it is proven that the executor did an act of extortion of the money he
is  entrusted with, let  the  estate be  in the hands  of  the stewards of the
Church until they reach legal age. God advised to care (for the flock) and not
let the guardian eat and unwisely dispose of the money  in their hands and let
not the beneficiaries suffer.

69.  It is not legal  for the executor to  sell assets of the beneficiaries to
pay taxes without requesting permission and getting approval from the ruler.

70.  One who is a soldier or in  the service of the  ruler can not be executor
of a will unless after he leaves the service mentioned.

71.   The  wills of bishops, monks,   and freed  slaves  are explained  in the
chapter on inheritances next (chapter 42).


                                      Pages From Church History
                                      Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                Concerning Lost/Found Item on Common Property  Such As
    Wilderness/Pasture Lands, Roads, Markets, Hotels, Baths, and Churches
                                                  Chapter 41

1.  If one finds a lost item and did not know whom it presently belongs to; if
it is a trivial item there is no harm in wasting it;  otherwise take the thing
to  the place where it  was found and  elsewhere for  a week. If  one came and
identified it with specific remarks give it back to that person.  Otherwise it
is permissible to freely handle it.

2.   If it was  not  trivial and  considered by   a majority  of people  to be
valuable,  one keeps  it   as   a  safekeeper  for   its   owner  noting   its
characteristics which includes race (specie), color,  shape, size, and weight.

3.  It is liked that if one claims the found item to be his own witness and to
specify  in front of  other witnesses some of  its distinct characteristics to
avoid the devils temptation  as the Apostle  Paul  commanded. If the  owner is
still not found after the first week it should  be made known in public places
like  the place it  was found, meetings, markets,  and Churches  for 70 weeks.
When   the item   is  announced it  shall    be done mentioning  only  general
characteristics  and waiting for the owner   to give specific characteristics.
For example if it was Dirhams (money)  mention only Dirhams without saying how
many or mentioning  the color or  shape of the  purse it was  in. If  it was a
piece of jewelry or cloth, do not give out the  color, the style, or the type,
so if  one comes and claims  to be the  owner let him describe  it, and if the
description matches closely and there is witnesses who would  think that he is
the owner let the witnesses to whom he is known let  them hand it to him after
identifying him. It is desired that the witness is a  free believer. If no one
claims the item in this period (70 weeks) it is up to the finder to do what he
pleases with the found item. If the finder was a  slave, let his master handle
the identification and following action. If the finder was under guardianship,
the guardian shall do the necessary action.

4.  Increasing the waiting period is desirable.

5.   If  the  item   spoils  (is  damaged)  in  the     hands of  the   finder
unintentionally,  he  is  not   responsible. But if   it  is  proven that   he
intentionally caused the damage he is responsible.

6.  If the finder had companions who passed the  item without taking it or did
not care  to follow instructions for   picking up the lost  item  they can not
share in the item (if the owner is not found). But if  they were behind him or
helped in picking it up  they share in identifying,  trying to find the owner,
or in it (if owner is not found).

7.  If I was seen by others (not companions) they can take it  as a witness to
the trustee (treasury) of the ruler and after going through the identifying if
owner not found it goes to the finder.

8.  If the finder if from another town, he  should leave it  with the trustee.
The finder has the choice to ask for the wages of identification and searching
for the owner or to waive it. The wages are based on the time, effort, and

9.  If  the found item is  a large animal like a  camel,  cow, horse, mule, or
donkey and if it is found in a known pasture, it  should be left there. But if
it was  roaming in the  city,  it should not  be  left roaming but instead  it
should  be captured. Its  return  should be   on  the hands   of two or  three
witnesses from the famous (well known) people.

10. If it was a smaller animal like a small calf, a colt,  a small sheep, or a
bird was  found alone it should  be kept (not be left  behind). The finder can
spend for the identification period from his own money or a loan to be charged
to the owner  when the owner (when  the  owner comes forward  and successfully
claim his lost item).

11.  If the owner comes forward and pays the  wages of identifying and keeping
the item he receives his item and its produce if any, otherwise the finder can
sell it with  permission from the  ruler after  one week  and to continue  the
identification period. It is up to  the finder to  do what he pleases with the
sale revenue.

12.  It is desirable that the revenue from such sale  be given to charity. And
it is preferred that this money goes to one who  is in need.  If the finder is
needy he is more deserving.

13.   If the  found  item is  perishable it  is  better to   sell it if  it is
possible. If it was food items it can be consumed. by the finder.

14.  If  one comes along  and identifies the item as  his; if  it was sold, he
(the finder) has to return the  revenue. If he  consumed it, he owes the value
if he is well to do, but if he was not  able he should  return what is left of
it. If it was all consumed, he owes nothing.

15.  If (the finder) gave  the item away to charity,  the owner can accept the
charity as his and gain the eternal reward if he goes along,  or he can try to
claim all or part of it or its monetary value from the charity.

16.  The word of the finder is taken in all disputes concerning the found item
unless the owner can produce proof to the contrary.

17. If  one  is found  in  this condition, he  should  be assumed free because
freedom   is the original  condition  and that he is    the child of believers
because this is the priority. If he was  found in a  place where believers are
scarce  and   he was  claimed by  non-believers   inquire diligently among the
believers (to verify his identity).

18.  If items were found with him either tied to him or places next to him, it
is assumed that  it belongs to  him and use it (if  it is of value) to support
him with permission from the ruler. It is desirable to have witness of finding
the person and the belongings.

19.  If he did not have anything, and if the finder is well to do let him take
the person and care for him, otherwise take him to the ruler (authority) so he
can be put in a (foster) home to be taken care of at the expense of the foster
parent  or from charitable  funds.  In either  case he  should be educated and
taught a trade/profession.

20.  If the finder is a slave or person of bad repute or un-believer he should
find out who has valid claim concerning the lost person and hand  him to them!

21.  It is preferred that the one who takes a lost person in to treat him like
own child and educate him and teach him  a trade/profession. as  if he was his
own son choosing for him what is appropriate for his abilities and desires. It
is  important to pay  attention to his  wishes and desires  and  to do it with
understanding of his faith and according to his religion.

(Part: Concerning What follows):

22.  If one  finds and returns an escaped  slave, a child,  or  a person under
guardianship, he is  entitled to the  expense associated with his  effort. The
finder  has the  choice to donate  or  keep the  received  compensation. At  a
minimum he is  entitled to travel  expense between the  place he found him and
the place he returned him and the time between the  finding and return.

23. If the person escapes from the one  who found him, he  (the finder) is not

24.  However, the finder should  give witness (make it known)  that he found a
person and tried to return him to his owner (, but he escaped).

25.  If  the  disobedient   (escapee)  is  a   pawned  slave, the  holder   is


26.  If  one disappears and  it is not known where  he is or  if he is life or
dead, and he left behind some fortune, the ruler shall appoint one to care for
the  family   as an honest    guardian to take care   of  the finances  of the
family. The  guardian can be a  volunteer or paid from  the funds according to
his  effort. It  is  required that  the funds be   certified and dated  in the
presence of witness.

27.  If a period is passed exceeding his expected life span, his fortune shall
be divided among his heirs as their inheritance. Before this determined period
as long as he is not found he can not inherit or be inherited.


                                      Pages From Church History
                                      Awlaad Al-Assal (1200 AD)
                                        Concerning Inheritance
                                                  Chapter 42

(Part 1: What to do with the estate, what the  departed leaves behind, and the
days during which the heirs can not ask for their inheritance):

1.  They start with paying for the coffin, wages for digging the burial place,
and the cost of the tomb.

2.  Then the cost of the funeral and the offerings as described in the chapter
concerning the dead.

3.  Pay to the poor from the possessions of  the departed as a remembrance for

4.  Then pay what the departed owes in land (property) and other taxes.

5.  If the  departed owes money  it shall be paid  first, but anything that is
forgiven  can be counted off  if the debtor agrees to  forgive the debt. Also,
some times the estate is protected  or an action  is taken to negotiate debts,
but in  the end  the estate  has to  pay what is    determined to be  fair  by
impartial witnesses.

6.  Following that is what the departed owes  like solemn pledges  to God.  If
the will did not include alms but the heirs are not  in bad need they can give
alms according to the  value of the estate  and the financial condition of the
heirs. After all  these  they can  follow his  commandments based instructions
(chapter 41)..

7.  We previously stated  the rules (chapter 41)  which limits his actions  to
one half and one fourth (3/4)  of the estate. and  one fourth is for his legal
heirs without further modification.

8.  No one is allowed  to ask the heirs and/or  relatives of the deceased  for
any debts for at least 9 days following  the death, because  these are days of
sorrow. No one should  ask them to  appear in front of   a council or  a court
either. And if anyone entraps one  of the involved to sign  a paper or make an
agreement,  such action shall  be null  and void. After  the appointed  period
objections to the will can be raised if they are (the objections) according to
the commandments.

(Part Two: General Paragraphs Concerning Inheritance, and the Order of Heirs):

9.  Heirs are two categories: First those  who have a  definite portion of the
inheritance according to six rules:

(First) The   wife is entitled to one   half if the  other  heirs are  not her
children.  Otherwise a share equal to that of one of the children.

(Second) The same for the husband (if he inherits his wife).

(Third)  The uncles (fathers side) have with his mother 1/3 portions.

(Fourth) Their Children share the same way with the mother.

(Fifth)  Grandparents share with the brothers and sisters of the deceased 1/3

10. (Sixth)-  The rest, if  they inherit it  is according to class of relation
(process of  selecting a class  if the closer (higher   priority) doe not have
survivors) as follows:

11.  Tribe (relatives) form  father side males and  females are ahead of those
from the mothers side.

12.   According  to the rules of  the  king there  are   twenty two classes of
relation as follows:

13. (First Class): The off-spring of the deceased males and females equally.

14. (Second):  Males and females who are off-spring of the ones above.

15. (Third):  The father of the deceased.

16.  (Fourth):  His Brothers and sisters and mother equally.

17. (Fifth):  Brothers and sisters from father alone.

18. (Sixth): Brothers and sisters from mother alone.

19. (Seventh): Male and female off-spring of the deceased brothers and sisters

20.  (Eighth) The father of the father of the deceased.

21. (Ninth): The mother of the father of the deceased.

22.  (Tenth): His Uncles (Amaam, fathers side).

23.  (Eleventh): The male and  female off-spring of  his uncles (fathers side)

24.  (Twelfth):  The male and female off-spring of his daughters.

25.    (Thirteenth):   the males and female    off-spring  of his  sisters and

26.  (Fourteenth):  The deceased aunts (amaat sisters of his father).

27.  (Fifteenth);   Off-spring of them (above) males and females equally.

28.  (Sixteenth):  Father of the mother of the deceased.

29.  (seventeenth):  The mother of his mother.

30.  (Eighteenth):  The deceased uncles (akwaaloh) brothers of his mother.

31.  (Nineteenth):  The male and female off-spring of those above.

32.  (Twentieth):  Aunts (mothers sisters) of the deceased.

33.  (Twenty-first):  The off-spring of them above.

34. (Twenty-second):  The fathers of the grandparents.

35.  Inheritance is based  on classes of relatives  according to relation, the
closer relations are considered  first then  the  lesser relation, .. etc.  It
favors the  deceased  off-spring class over  his  parents. It also favors  the
tribe (family) of the father over that of the  mother (and passing inheritance
to  on  generation down of one  male   that is not   present.  For example the
children of the  male off-spring if the  off-spring are no longer alive before
the father of the deceased is considered. It also favors the off-spring of the
males of the brothers and sisters if the  brothers and sisters of the deceased
are no  longer alive and they  are ahead of  the grandparents of the deceased.
It  favors one generation of a  family over the following generation (children
favored over grandchildren concerning    inheritance). It also   considers the
uncles (fathers side) then their children before the aunts (fathers side) then
their  children. Then the uncles (mothers  side) and their children then aunts
(mothers  side) and  then their children.  Then  it considers  grandparents as
explained. In the search for the class to inherit a deceased the closest class
is sought and given inheritance if found otherwise the next  is sought until a
class of inheritors is found and given equal shares but  if in any class there
is only one  single   person he gets  all  after   the portion according    to
commandments is satisfied (as explained in chapter 41).

(Part 3: Concerning What A Husband Inherits from his Wife):

37.  The reason the husband (spouse) is placed  ahead of all others is because
marriage  is the origin  of  all that  follows. Through marriage  children are
brought  to  existence. It makes parents  parents.  And through  marriage they
became one and  not twain as  the Lord said. The  one is more deserving of his
things than others.

38.  If a man or a woman dies and there was  no other natural heirs from close
(higher) relations,  lesser (lower) relations,  or side  relations, the man is
entitled to  the entire  estate of  his wife  and the  woman  of her husband. 

39.  (In the  closing of  the  collection of the   Patriarch Anba Ghobrial  he
says): if he (the deceased) had  a wife and children,  she becomes like one of
them (meaning  equal  share) because the  book of  Descolia  (teachings of the
Apostles) says  give to the orphans  the fortune of their   parents and to the
widows the fortune of their husbands. This saying indicates that the estate of
the deceased goes to his children and his wife. If he did not make
distinctions, they all get equal shares.

40.  It  is customary  of a husband  or  a wife dies  and if  he did  not have
children as heirs, the surviving spouse receives half the estate and the other
half goes to the other  legal heirs. this also agrees  with what was mentioned
in  Rules of the King (Rule  55). They also said if  a man was legally married
but  not consummated the marriage and  he dies,  she  is entitled  to half his
estate and his relative the other  half, but if  he had no  legal heirs she is
entitled to the entire estate.

(The following  Rules are from the Closing of the Collection of The Patriarch
Anba Ghobrial)

41.  The standards require that the portion one leaves for  the other is equal
because of the Lords  saying (God created a  helper equal to him). And because
of His saying (he makes them one and no longer twain). So  the man shall leave
for his wife half if there is no children and equal  portion with the children
and all if all (legal heirs) are gone.

42. If the husband and wife are related (family relations before marriage) the
standards require that  each inherits to shares  from the other. One share for
marriage and the other share for family relation.

43.  In  the chapter concerning  marriage other laws (Kings  Rule 51) if a man
dies his wife is entitled to the entire furnituings and half  the dowry and if
she dies   he is  entitled  to the   entire  dowry and  half   the furnituings
regardless  of having chidden or  not (this is in  addition to the inheritance
and not considered pat of it).

44.  If the husband dies and had  no children born of  her, she is entitled to
the   furnituings and half  the dowry.  If the furnituings   are  worn out (no
monetary value) she can claim the value of  the cloth she  brought in with her
or  the monetary value  of it which  can be  found  in the book (agreement) of
marriage. The jewelry and any advance payments (arboon) is  hers and its value
is known. If in her furnituings  slaves, she can claim them  if they are still
alive. If they were sold she  receive the value of  the sale, but if they were
dead she receives nothing because it is natural for them to die. If the slaves
produced off-spring,  she is entitled  to half and the  other  legal heirs the
other half. This is also the rule concerning  any herd of sheep  or cows.  She
claims   the herd back   and any off-spring of  the   herd she  is entitled to
half. the same applies to a hive of bees and similar possessions.

45.  Half  of the off-spring   is the mans  because although  she brought  the
livestock in it was fed and cared for at the mans expense.

46.  If one dies after   the marriage  contract but   before the marriage   is
consummated it is explained in the chapter on marriage, part II.

(Part Four: Two Classes (of  Heirs)):

47.   (First  Class): In  what  the  off-spring  inherit  from their  parents.
Because the law  favored  the children of  the deceased  over his  parents  in
inheritance. The parents are the cause the off-spring exists and the cause has
to be a  good  cause for  existence (ellat  sallah) and  this can be   through
leaving them   wealth. Also the   children are the future   of life  and their
grandparents are the ones who shall leave it. For these reasons inheritance is
from above down and  not from down  up unless no one below  is found to become
legal heir. Also the remembrance (memory) of parents is through their children
and  not through  their parents,   so the children     are more deserving   of

48.   The reason  of giving  equal  share to daughters   and  sons in the  new
testament is the saying  of the Apostle Paul: In  Christ men and women are the
same   (equal). Also  their relation   to  the  giver   is the same  being his
children. The parent owes the same to one as he owes the other.

49.  The reason  of  favoring   children over the    chidden  of the  children
(grandchildren) is because they are closer to the givers.

50. If  one dies and leaves off-spring,   sons and daughters, without  a will,
they share together (equally).

51.  Regardless of having the same mother or not.

52.  Even if one is dumb or deaf.

53.   If the daughter marries  and her father paid  for her furnituings , this
will be considered part of her inheritance (reduced accordingly) if the father
agreed to that in his life or not.

54.  It is  agreed in the Church (body  of believers) that if the  furnishings
exceed the inheritance   she owes none, but if   it was less   she receive the

55.  Those born   from a free woman   (outside wedlock) share   with the other
off-spring equally.

56. Those  born  from unlawful  marriages like the  wife of   the brother, the
sister of the wife, the aunt (fathers  sister), the aunt (mothers sister), the
fathers other wife or  his concubine can not  inherit their parents  without a
will (explicitly). But their children are counted in  the classes of relation.

57.  If their father  explicitly in his  will gives them portion, they receive
it. If he will equal portion, it is permissible.

58.  (Second  Class): In the inheritance of  the grandchildren male and female
from their grandparents. The children of the children inherit the deceased and
they out rank the parents of their grandparents in inheritance rights.

59.  Because the father is favored over the brothers and sister. First because
between him and his children  one degree of  relation separation, but  between
the brothers  and sisters   two  degrees of relation  separation  (meaning two
births). Second,   because  the father  is   the reason of    existence of his
off-spring    and the presence    of the inheritance  is  caused   by him. But
off-spring are not the cause of existence of one another, so the father is the
cause and is more  deserving to inherit it.   Also,  in many cases  the father
gave the wealth to the child  to start with and it  is natural that it returns
to him if the closer relation does not exist and for that reason the father is
favored over the mother in matters of inheritance. Also the woman was made for
the man and what existed for another is lesser than the thing  it was made for
also the mother is like a container and like the soil for  the plant. Also the
inheritance can return  to the siblings through the  father and these are  all
reasons for favoring the    father over mother   and  siblings in  matters  of

60.  If one dies and he has no children or grandchildren and  did not author a
will  and had  mother and  father, his inheritor  is  his  father and not  his

(Part Six):
Four classes in what siblings inherit from brothers and  sisters and what half
brothers may inherit:

61.   The two  grandfathers  can inherit with siblings,   also the mother  can
inherit according  to conditions. Also, the children  of brothers  and sisters
(nieces and nephews) can inherit according to conditions.  And the sibling are
after  the father in  degree of relation for  inheritance as explained before.
The siblings (brothers and sisters) are favored over grandparents because they
are equal in relation to  the deceased and closest in  relation to the  father
(if the father does not inherit) and the brothers  and sisters are closer than
grandparents and they  are coming to life  (in the sunrise  of life) while the
grandparents  are in the sunset  of life and they are  considered of more need
because they are building a future.

62.  (Fourth Class): If one dies and had no children  or surviving father, the
inheritance should  go  to his brothers  and  sisters and his mother  in equal

63.  Brothers and sisters from one father and one mother inherit equally.

64.  (Fifth and  Sixth Class): If  one dies and  have no brothers  and sisters
from same father and mother, his half brothers and sisters inherit him because
the half brothers and sisters are less related than full brothers and sisters.

65.  The sibling  from father  side is  favored over the  siblings from mother
side. Because  the  siblings from the  father  side are  closer (higher class)

66. If the  deceaseds parents were  no alive (assuming he  has no  children as
well), his grandparents  inherit with his brothers  and sisters. This law does
not distinguish between  the parents fathers  side or  mothers  side. The laws
favored  the  grandparents from father side   (closer class) than grandparents
from    mothers side.   If the  siblings   are  from  fathers   side alone the
grandparents fathers  side alone inherit with  them. If they were mothers side
grandparents from the mothers side inherit.

67. If the   mother is  made equal  to  one  of the  siblings  (in  matters of
inheritance), she does not mask any of the  siblings full or half related, she
inherits as one of the siblings (equal share).

68.  If one of the siblings is  not present (no longer  alive) she inherits in
his place  and she masks the  children of the  siblings because the law states
that she is equal to one of  the siblings (in matters  of inheritance) and the
sibling masks his children and the mother is closer than the grandparents.

69.  The mother has two thirds with the uncles and nephews (siblings of uncles
fathers side) one third for them to share.

70.  (Seventh Class) According to the rule of  classes of relation closer then
the less  close, the siblings  of the  children   after the children  and  the
siblings of the uncles after the uncles in each case males and females inherit
equal shares noting  that the siblings of the  full brothers and sisters ahead
of those of half brothers and  sisters. And preference  given to half brothers
and sisters from the father  than those from  the mother only  (and it will be
mentioned later that the children of brothers and sisters follow them in class
of relation).

71.  The reason grandparents are favored over uncles (fathers side) is because
they are closer in relation because between the  grandfather and his childrens
children  two births. But between the  uncles and his  brothers siblings three
births.  as explained in  the chapter  on marriage.  Also grandparents on  the
fathers  side are  closer than  grandparents on mothers   side, the  later are
masked because the fathers tribe (family) masks that of the mother.

72.  If there is no heirs going down (to children and grandchildren), we go up
(to  parents)  then grandparents  before going   lateral  to uncles  and their

73.   After the males  and females from the  fathers  tribe (family) heirs are
sought from the mothers tribe (family/side).

74.  From this reasoning above  in the two laws  above, the grandparents  from
fathers side are   considered after  his brothers  and  sisters and  they  are
followed by mothers side. The grandfather is favored over the grandmother.

(Part Eight: Tenth and Eleventh Class: What the Uncles and Cousins Inherit and
what his mother receives also):

75.  The reason the uncles and their children are favored over the children of
the  daughters and the children of  the sisters is   because they are from the
tribe (family)   of  the  father  which is  closer   relation than  the others

76.  One who  does not  have  children or children  from  sons or brothers  or
brothers children is inherited by his  uncles (fathers side) or their children
after them.

77.  His uncles or   their children receive one  third  of the estate and  his
mother (if alive) receives two thirds.  If none of  those relations exist, the
next classes  of relation can inherit. Those  from the same class  of relation
inherit equal shares.

(Part Nine: Twelfth and Thirteenth Class. What the Children of the Daughter
and Children of Brothers and Sisters Inherit):

78.  One who has no brothers or  sisters alive and no  uncles or cousins alive
is inherited by the children of his daughters otherwise he is inherited by the
children of his brothers and sisters.

(Part 10: The Rest of the Classes):

79.  If the deceased does not have sisters children,  his aunts (fathers side)
inherit him. If  no aunts, his  aunts children inherit  him, males and females
alike (equal shares). Also in the  first class of  relations males and females
get equal shares.

80. (Second Class relations and what follows): Women do not inherit with their
children and the children of their sisters.

81.  The inheritance does  not include women  after first class relation.  The
children of females do not  inherit with children  of male , also the children
of sisters do not inherit with the children  of brothers, also the children of
aunts do not inherit with children of uncles (fathers side) same for aunts and
uncles (mothers side). If the off-spring of  the father has no surviving males
then the females inherit, same for the off-spring mothers side.

82.   As mentioned  in  the rulings,  after  the  aunts and  their descendants
(fathers side), the mothers tribe (family) side is considered  as heirs.  They
are  the   deceased  parents,   his  mothers  mother,   his   uncle   (mothers
side). Between the deceased and his grandfather two births, his uncle (mothers
side) three births. After the uncle (mothers side) , uncles children males and
females   as  in  the  inheritance   of   uncles   (fathers side)  and   their
children. After that the  parents of grandparents. The  those that follow them
(in class of relation) as explained previously.

83. If one has no heirs, the state (country) treasury inherits him.

(Part Eleven: Those Who Inherit the Bishops and the Monks):

84.  It should be  known what belongs  to the bishop and  what belongs to  the
Church (Episcopate). His own possessions is under his control  and he can will
it to whom he chooses. And it should not be mixed with the Church possessions,
because he might have relatives whom he care for and also off-spring (It seems
that the law of celibacy was not always the norm, some bishops married and had
children from  the  flesh). It  is only  according to Gods   justice that what
belongs to the  Church is preserved   for the Church  and what  belongs to the
bishop is preserved for him so he is not treated  unjustly. Also it is advised
for  the bishops relatives not to  boast about what is  his or what belongs to
the  Church because  boasting might  bring  bad  remembrance of  the  departed

85. Those who are related to him might face difficulty (if his possessions are
denied them)  and they  might be  driven to blasphemy    (if they are  treated

86.  Everything the bishop owned before he became bishop is his own wealth, he
can will it or give it away. But everything  he accumulates afterwards belongs
to the Church  (episcopate), he can not  will  it to  anyone. But he  can will
inheritances he received from parents or brothers or uncles.

87.  If he was  consecrated bishop and was poor  before the consecration,  the
wealth belongs to the Church (he can not will it).  But if he had children the
Church should continue  supporting them after his  death. Also if he has close
relatives in need, the Church should care for them as well.

88.   If one becomes  a monk  after he had  children  he can divide his wealth
among them, but to  keep one share for the  monastery (he is associated with).
But if he dies without  a  will, his children take   their share according  to
inheritance  rule, the     rest   goes to   the   monastery   it  is    called
Filickidon!!!!. If he had no off-spring,  it depends: If he  did not bring his
money to the monastery, it is up to  him in what  he willed, but if he brought
it in  it belongs with the  monastery except for  what he mentioned in  a will
prior to entering the monastery.

(Part Twelve: Concerning Slaves and Freed Slaves)

89.   A  slave does not  inherit   without  a  will naming   him, because  the
inheritance is for family.

90.  No one inherits him except  his master because  his possessions are owned
by his master. It  is not valid  for him to write  a will or  a bill  of sales
without the approval of his master.

91.  If the slave  after being set free  marries a  slave woman, his  children
from the  slave woman  can  not  inherit him,  his possessions  revert  to the
masters that set him free.  [That is ridiculous, but it shows how lucky we are
to live today!]

92.  Also the children of a free woman  from a husband  who is a slave can not
inherit her, but she is inherited by those deserving  from the free (following
the relatives classes) and her husband gets what belongs to him.

93.  It  is possible for  the slave to  receive an inheritance from his master
because he has rights given by the master but it can only be by written will.

94.  Slaves are set immediately free  if they are  part of an estate that went
to the treasury because the deceased did not have natural heirs.  Any one that
violates this rule will not be forgiven his sins!

95. A freed slave has the right to author a will, if he has natural heirs they
inherit  him, but if  he  does  not his  former  master  or  masters or  their
descendants inherit  him. If in his will  he specify other than natural heirs,
his master/masters have one third of the estate.

96.   If one  wrote a  decree  to free his  slave  at  his death and  included
specification of  possessions  or  money, the   slave  gains his   freedom and
specified items, otherwise the heirs of the master take it.

(Part Thirteen: Who Can Not Inherit, What Can Not be Inherited):

97.  The following can not inherit without a will naming them: Anyone who does
not have a relation  with the  deceased natural  or through marriage,  even if
they  have  a  relation by  proxy   or  common law   such   as nursing  women,
baby-sitters, eshpeens, step fathers, step mothers,  relatives of the husband,
relatives of  the wife,  step  brothers,  step sisters,   parents of  the step
siblings, brothers wife, sisters husband, and spouses of the off-spring.

98.  (First Group) Does not  inherit the believer,  even  if there is a  will,
those who depart the faith. If  a will mentioned him when  he was in the faith
and he was found outside the faith, he  does not inherit  but if he returns to
the true faith (with clear evidence) he becomes deserving of his share, but if
his return  was  after the estate  was divided  he  looses his  share.  If the
departed was a priest, only  the believers from his  natural heirs can inherit
him. But if none of his  natural heirs is  a believer, his  estate goes to the
Church where  he served as priest.  Also, if the person was  not a priest, and
none of  his natural heirs was a  believer his estate  goes to the treasury of
the state. If the heir engages in action to endanger the life of the deceased,
or  conspires to  kill him,  or  hands  him to  his  killer(s),  he looses his
inheritance right.

99.  (Second Group) Does not inherit without a  will the off-spring of illegal
marriage, relatives born from illegal marriages, and slave and freed slaves as
explained    before. Also disobedient  children  and  children  who defy their
parents  by  choosing  trades  that  are  not  proper   such as slave   trade,
prostitution, or those who defy by marrying illegally such  as those who marry
their step  mothers, daughters, sisters, mothers and   those who cause parents
harm or loss of wealth also not to inherit without a will  a woman who marries
before the legal period following the departed spouse is complete (one year as
explained under marriage). Any one who tries to deceive by hiding a will shall
not inherit either.

100.  The disobedient  who beat or curse his  parents or accuse them  of crime
(falsely) does not inherit.  Also, those who do  not care for their parents in
their  old age  or sickness   does  not inherit. Also,  those  especially male
off-spring who  do  not support parents   in difficulty such  as imprisonment,
tribulation, or (necessary) cosignature do not  inherit.  Also, one who forces
his parents not to author a will or forces his way  in what is written without
the approval of the parents and/or authority doe not inherit.

101. Likewise a daughter or sister  or wife who lives  the life of prostitutes
Also a  female off-spring  who chooses this   way because her father  gave her
dowry  and furnishings  according  to his financial   situation which  was not
satisfactory to her and  she choose the  life of ill  repute as a result. Also
does not inherit  off-spring who neglected their parent  care which  mad other
relatives who   are not heirs  to  care for them.   If the  person regains his
health after sickness, he can choose to author a will  excluding those who did
not  care for them because they  abused the  privilege.   But it  is up to the
parent to forgive them and  warn them and include  them again in his will. But
if they continued to neglect him  and he was cared for  by the stranger in the
stranger home to the time of his death, the stranger can be included as one of
the heir deserving inheritance!

102.  If a parent is taken  as a prisoner of  war and his off-spring neglected
to  work for his release,  and if he is  released he can   choose to give them
inheritance or not. If he dies  in his imprisonment and  it is proven that his
heirs did  not work for his  release they loose their  inheritance. If all the
legal  heirs are guilty of such  behavior, his estate goes  to the Church. The
Church has to use such funds to help those who are in  similar situation to be
an example for all. No one who neglected in such  situation is to inherit even
if they are  mentioned in an  authored will before  the imprisonment. This  is
also applied to a stranger 18 years  or older who was  mentioned in a will and
neglected to work towards  freeing the one  who included him  in his will. All
expense  related to freeing   an imprisoned  should be  documented  and he  is
required to pay back because these are the rules of proper conduct.

103.  If the heir gives the benefactor a medicine  (drug) that spoils the mind
or did not support him when he needed his help and was imprisoned as a result,
the heir doe not inherit. but if the heir was not able to lend support because
he was dumb, deaf,  or blind, he is not  to obligated and  does not  loose his

104.  Everything that obligates the  off-spring to their parent, obligates the
parents to their off-spring exactly the same.

105.  In general, the rules are common for every heir with every benefactor if
there is  proven  reason for  preventing   the inheritance  after   a will  is
authored, it is prevented for a relative or a stranger alike.

106.  (Inheritance can also be prevented ,) if one was given less than what is
his legal share of inheritance (right of refusal?)

107.  Fornicators are also prevented from inheritance as mentioned in the book
of the rules of the king.

108.  This is also applicable to situation where doubt exists (meaning a proof
is required when in doubt). For example if two  are traveling and one dies due
to drowning or fire  or building destruction  (in suspicious circumstances) it
is  advised  to   investigate   before  executing  a will    or   distributing
inheritance. In general if it  is not clear who survived  and who did not they
can not inherit each other until it is  made clear what the circumstances, but
either one can  inherit  others that are not   involved in the incident  being

109.  (Last  Part) What stops  action is a complaint  concerning a prisoner of
war or (long) travel. In general if news about  a person whereabouts stops for
a longtime, the ruler  can make a determination about  the missing if there is
proof that he is dead or absent long enough to be considered dead.

110. If  the absent person has a  relative who died, they  are required to act
with care   concerning the share of   the absent person.   For  example if the
absent    has an off-spring,    he is not  masked  by  the  off-spring until a
determination is made that  he is dead or absent  long enough to be considered
dead. His  share should be  saved until  the determination  with  proof for or
against is made.