The Writer Of The Gospel Of Luke
The writer of the Gospel of Luke was also the writer of the Book of Acts. Both were written for a certain man named Theophilus. There are we sections in the Book of Acts, which indicate the writer was a close associate of the apostle Paul's and an eyewitness to what he recorded in those sections.
Luke was this close associate of Paul, who wrote the Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts. Paul mentioned Luke by name three times in his letters. In Colossians 4:14 Paul spoke of him as Luke, the beloved physician. In Philemon 24 Paul stated Luke was his fellow worker. In 2 Timothy 4:11 Paul wrote that only Luke was with him during his second Roman imprisonment.
Luke was a Gentile, probably a Greek. This appears to have been the case, because Paul distinguished him from his Jewish co-workers who were from the circumcision (cf. Colossians 4:10-14). Luke had taken up residence in Antioch, Syria. Acts 11:28 in the Greek manuscript known as the Codex Bezae has an insertion that makes Luke present at the meeting of the church in Antioch when the prophet Agabus foretold there would be a great famine. Paul and Barnabas were there as well. While there is some question that this version of Acts 11:28 was original, it indicates that by the fourth century the opinion was held that Luke lived in Antioch and by the late A.D. 30's had become a Christian and member of the church in Antioch. Acts 6:5 also gives some incidental evidence to Luke's having lived in Antioch and to his being a member of the church there. When Luke named in Acts 6:5 who were the first deacons chosen by the church in Jerusalem, he stated that Nicolas was formerly a convert to Judaism and from Antioch. Luke apparently knew this from his personal knowledge of the members of the church in Antioch, where he had also been a member.
Ancient tradition supports that Luke was an Antiochian. The Anti-Marcionite Prologue, dated between A.D. 160 and 180, states, Luke was an Antiochian of Syria, a physician by profession. This statement also appears in Eusebius' Church History (about A.D. 323) and in Jerome's De Viris Illustribus (A.D. 392). Origen is also quoted in Eusebius' Church History as saying that Luke was an Antiochian by descent and a physician by profession.
Luke was a physician (cf. Colossians 4:14). Thus Antioch is a credible place for Luke to have lived. For Antioch was the location of a famous ancient medical school. There Luke was likely to have studied medicine.
Accepting as true that by the late A.D. 30's Luke was a member of the church in Antioch who attended the meeting at which Agabus spoke of a great famine, Acts 11:19-21 gives us an insight into how Luke may have become a Christian. In connection with the stoning of Stephen a terrible persecution of the Jewish Christians in Jerusalem began (cf. Acts 7:59-8:2). The Christians scattered to Antioch as well as to Phoenicia and Cyprus. They preached the Word where they went. In Antioch they shared the gospel of Jesus only with Jews. Then some Christian men of Cyprus and Cyrene came to Antioch and preached the gospel of Jesus to the Greeks who were there. The Lord blessed their preaching and a large number believed and turned to the Lord. This is a good possibility of how Luke came to hear the gospel and was converted from paganism to Christianity. It is interesting to note that Luke, formerly a Greek pagan and Gentile, became an instrument of the Holy Spirit to write about 25% of the New Testament. He is the only Gentile to have written a book of the New Testament.
The we sections of the Book of Acts provide enlightening information about Luke's travels and work as Paul's assistant. In these we sections the writer Luke suddenly shifts from writing in the third person he or they to the first person plural we to include himself as a participant in, and an eyewitness to, Paul's travels and missionary work. Acts 16:10-17 reveals that Luke joined Paul, Silas, and Timothy in Troas, a city of what is now Turkey, on Paul's second missionary journey. After Paul had his vision of a man in Macedonia beckoning him to come and help them, they left Troas by ship and crossed the Aegean Sea into Macedonia, to begin preaching the gospel for the first time in Europe. They proceeded to the city of Philippi, where they established a congregation. This we section of Acts 16:10-17 ends with Luke remaining in Philippi when Paul and Silas moved on to Thessalonica. It appears that Luke remained there throughout the remainder of Paul's second missionary journey, which Paul spent in Corinth, and throughout Paul's third missionary journey in Ephesus. For this period of about seven years Luke appears to have overseen the work in the church in Philippi.
The next we section begins at Acts 20:6. Luke rejoins Paul at the end of Paul's third missionary journey. Together with Paul and the other brothers from the Gentile churches, Luke goes to Jerusalem to take the collection of the churches to the poor Christians there. Luke spent some time in Jerusalem. He had the opportunity to meet James the head of the church in Jerusalem and the brother of the Lord Jesus (cf. Acts 21:18; Matthew 13:55), the elders of the Jerusalem church, not to mention the apostles who were there and the many Christians who had seen and heard Jesus during his public ministry and passion.
In Jerusalem Paul was arrested around A.D. 57 and held in Roman custody for two years (cf. Acts 21:31-33; 24:27). It appears on the basis of the written details of this period that Luke remained with Paul in Caesarea throughout this time as one of Paul's friends who could minister to him (cf. Acts 24:23). The presence of Luke with Paul in Caesarea is given added support by the fact that when Paul was transferred from there to Rome around A.D. 59, Luke was there to accompany Paul on the sea journey to Rome. For the next we section of Acts 27:1-28:16 reveals Luke boarding the ship with Paul and arriving in Rome with him in A.D. 59 to 60.
Luke then remained with Paul in Rome for the two years of Paul's first Roman imprisonment. This is clear from the greetings Paul included from Luke in his imprisonment epistles to the Colossians and to Philemon, which letters were written around A.D. 61 to 62. An interesting side light which shines through these greetings is this: the Christians of Colosse, and Philemon who was a member of the church in Colosse, must have known Luke personally, which was why Paul included the greeting to them from Luke. This would suggest that at some time Luke spent some time working with the Christians in that area of Asia Minor and what is now Turkey.
Luke was also with Paul during Paul's second Roman imprisonment. This is evident from 2 Timothy 4:11, where Paul wrote, Only Luke is with me. Luke is likely to have remained with Paul right up to the time of Paul's martyrdom in A.D. 67 to 68. This is supported by the Anti-Marcionite Prologue to the Gospel of Luke, which said Luke accompanied Paul until Paul's martyrdom.
The Anti-Marcionite Prologue also stated that Luke served the Lord without distraction, having neither wife nor children. It says that he wrote his gospel after the gospels of Matthew and Mark were written, and that he wrote it in Achaia, the Roman province in Greece in which Corinth was located. It also says he died in Boeotia in Greece at the age of eighty-four. The city of Thebes, the capital of Boeotia, has also been mentioned as the place of Luke's death. Another Greek legend says he died in Bithynia, the northern most Roman province in what is now Turkey, when he was seventy-four to eighty-four years old. Jerome stated in the fourth century that Luke was buried in Constantinople, where his bodily remains and those of Andrew were taken in the twentieth year of Constantius (A.D. 337-361).
These non-biblical notices about the person of Luke and his death show a lack of consensus. This leads one to conclude that the church of the second and later centuries did not possess a certain knowledge about the life and the work of Luke. What can be known with certainty about Luke's life and work comes from the scanty information included in the New Testament Scriptures.
Ancient Traditions Support Luke As The Writer Of His Gospel And The Book Of Acts
Irenaeus (A.D. 115-190) wrote in his book against heresy that Luke was a follower of Paul, who had preserved in a book the gospel which Paul preached. Irenaeus was referring to the book we know as the Gospel of Luke.
Justin Martyr, about A.D. 150, quoted frequently from the Gospel of Luke.
Tatian, sometime after A.D. 150, included the Gospel of Luke in his Diatessaron, which was a harmony of the four gospels.
The Anti-Marcionite Prologue, written between A.D. 160 and 180, which was an introduction to Luke's gospel, stated Luke accompanied Paul until Paul's martyrdom, and that while the gospels of Matthew and Mark had already been written, Luke was moved by the Spirit to compose his gospel in Achaia.
The pagan Celsus attacked the Gospel of Luke around A.D. 178.
The Muratorian Canon, dated around A.D. 175, attested to Luke's having written the gospel bearing his name.
Eusebius (A.D. 270-340) in his Church History spoke of both the Gospel and the Book of Acts as having been written by Luke.
The caption According to Luke is an ancient attestation to Luke's having written his gospel. Each of the four gospel rolls was marked on the outside of its roll with the phrase according to and the writer's name to distinguish one gospel account from another in the holder or drawer in which they were stored. These captions date back to a very early date in the history of the church.
Occasion And Purpose For The Writing Of The Gospel Of Luke
Both the Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts were written for a certain man named Theophilus. Nothing is known about this man. He may have been a Christian convert, or he was considering becoming one, for Luke stated that Theophilus had already been taught the gospel of Jesus Christ (cf. Luke 1:4). Luke addresses him as most excellent Theophilus, or as Your excellency. This title indicates Theophilus was a man of either wealth, prominence, official stature, or a combination of all three. Tertullus used this title to address Governor Felix (cf. Acts 24:3). Paul used this title to address Governor Porcius Festus (cf. Acts 26:25).
There are conflicting opinions among the scholars whether Luke dedicated his gospel to Theophilus. Such a dedication was a literary custom of antiquity. The man to whom the book was dedicated then accepted the cost of the book's publication and distribution. Whether Luke intended to dedicate his gospel to Theophilus, or to do no more than address the man by name for whose sake he wrote his gospel, cannot be determined with any high degree of certainty.
Luke 1:1-4 is the prologue of the gospel. It states that Luke wrote his gospel to give Theophilus an understanding of how certain were the things of Jesus' teachings and activities which Theophilus had been taught previously. Luke set out to write down for him a historical account of the gospel of Jesus Christ to show he is the Savior of the world.
Sources Luke May Have Used In The Course Of Writing His Gospel
Luke was not an eyewitness who had seen and heard for himself the things that Jesus had said and done. Luke stated in the prologue of his gospel (cf. Luke 1:1-4) that many before him had undertaken to compile an account of the things regarding Jesus that had been accomplished among them. Those compilations were just as the eyewitnesses to Jesus and his ministry, and who were his servants, had handed down those things Jesus had said and done. Luke wrote that having investigated everything most carefully himself from the beginning, he, too, had set out to compile those things of Jesus in consecutive order for Theophilus. It is evident, therefore, that Luke relied on eyewitnesses and written sources for the information he included in his gospel. He consulted the documents previously compiled. He interviewed the eyewitnesses who could tell him first hand about Jesus' teachings and activities.
Above all, we must recognize that the ultimate, true source behind Luke's gospel was the Holy Spirit--the Spirit of truth who taught his inspired penmen all things and brought to remembrance all that Jesus had said (John 14:16,17,26). The Spirit's inspiration of his penman does not rule out the writer's use of material at his disposal to document under the Spirit's guidance what he was writing. In using those materials the Spirit's guidance would have led the writer to leave out any chaff of error and to preserve only the wheat of what was the truth.
Paul was a source for Luke's gospel. As stated in the section about Luke the writer, Luke was a companion and assistant of the apostle Paul, who had seen Jesus and had been instructed by Jesus. Luke thus learned from Paul the gospel of Jesus Christ that Paul preached in his missionary endeavors.
Mark was another potential source of information for Luke. Luke associated with the gospel writer Mark. Luke first met Mark in the church of Antioch, where Luke was a member and where Barnabas and Paul had brought Mark in A.D. 44 to assist them (cf. Acts 12:25). It is clear that Luke was also with Mark, as well as with Paul, in Rome during Paul's first imprisonment there and when Paul wrote his prison epistles, (cf. Colossians 4:10,14; Philemon 24). Luke and Mark were again together with Paul in Rome during Paul's second Roman imprisonment before his martyrdom (cf. 2 Timothy 4:10,11). Mark had heard and learned the gospel that Peter had preached (cf. An Overview Of The Gospel Of Mark). It is thought that since Luke was in Rome with Mark during both of Paul's Roman imprisonments, and since Mark wrote his gospel in Rome in the mid A.D. 60's, Luke is likely to have obtained a copy of Mark's gospel very soon after it was written and followed it in the course of writing his own gospel.
Peter himself, whose preaching was the basis of Mark's gospel, may have been a source of information for Luke in preparing his gospel. Luke's whereabouts between Paul's first and second Roman imprisonments in A.D. 61 to 62 and in A.D. 67 is unknown. If Luke remained in Rome for those five years or so, he is likely to have had contact with Peter. Peter was in Rome and there wrote his first letter around A.D. 62 to 64 and his second letter around A.D. 66 to 67. Assuming Luke remained in Rome during those years, he had the opportunity to hear from Peter the gospel of Jesus that Peter preached.
Luke traveled with Paul to carry the collection of the Gentile churches to the poor Christians in Jerusalem. While there Luke met James the brother of the Lord Jesus and the elders of the church, (cf. Acts 21:18). He would also have had the opportunity to interview the apostles who were in Jerusalem, plus the many other Christians who had witnessed Jesus' teachings, miracles, suffering, death, and resurrection. There were many such Christians, for Paul noted in 1 Corinthians 15:6 that Jesus had appeared after his resurrection to more than five hundred such disciples at one time, many of whom were still living. Luke also spent the two years of Paul's imprisonment in Caesarea near Galilee and Judea. It would have been a simple matter for him to travel those areas where Jesus had conducted his ministry and talk with the eyewitnesses.
Matthew's gospel, which is thought to have been written between A.D. 50 to 60, was also a possible source of information for Luke's gospel. Luke may even have interviewed the apostle Matthew while in Jerusalem or elsewhere.
Luke had many other potential sources of information as well. He was with Silas, as well as with Paul, on the second missionary journey. Silas was a prophet of the church in Jerusalem before assisting Paul (cf. Acts 15:22,27,32,40; 16:8-10). Luke met and stayed with Philip the evangelist, who was one of the seven deacons chosen by the church in Jerusalem (cf. Acts 21:8; 6:5). He came into contact with the prophet Agabus from Judea (cf. Acts 21:10). He stayed in the home of Mnason, a disciple of long standing (cf. Acts 21:16). No doubt Mary, the mother of Jesus, was his source for the nativity accounts of Jesus in Luke 1 and 2.
Date And Place The Gospel Of Luke Was Written
A definite date for the writing of Luke's gospel cannot be ascertained. It is thought that Luke's gospel was written after the gospel of Matthew, which has been dated between A.D. 50 to 60, and shortly after Mark wrote his gospel around the mid A.D. 60's. It is also thought Luke wrote his gospel shortly after Paul's martyrdom in A.D. 67 to 68. Irenaeus stated that after the death of Peter and Paul, Mark wrote the gospel that Peter had preached and Luke wrote the gospel that Paul had preached. The Anti-Marcionite Prologue implied Luke wrote his gospel and the Book of Acts after Paul's death. Taking this into account, a date in the late A.D. 60's is likely.
The Gospel of John is a credible witness to this early dating of Luke's gospel, as well as to the early dating of Matthew and Mark. John wrote his gospel around A.D. 85. It is apparent that by that time he was quite familiar with the contents of the three synoptic Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, and that he accepted them as Scripture. For he wrote his gospel in a manner which supposed and required his readers' previous knowledge with those synoptic gospels. John skipped much of the material covered in the three synoptic gospels and filled in the blanks and gaps that the other three gospels did not cover. Thus Luke's gospel, as well as Matthew's and Mark's, must have been written prior to A.D. 85.
The Canon of Muratori (about A.D. 175) stated the third book of the Gospels was compiled by Luke. This makes Luke's gospel the third to have been written after that of Matthew's and Mark's. There is nothing that proves wrong the old tradition that the Gospels were written in the order in which they are arranged in our New Testament, and that Luke's was the third to be written. According to Eusebius' Church History Irenaeus indicated Luke's was the third gospel, as did Origen.
Like the exact date, the exact place of writing is indefinite. The Anti-Marcionite Prologue stated Luke wrote his gospel in Achaia, Greece. This could possibly be correct. Yet scholars have been skeptical about this location. In addition to Achaia in Greece, the cities of Antioch in Syria, Rome in Italy, and even Caesarea Philippi, have been suggested as possible places where Luke wrote his gospel.
Characteristics Of The Gospel Of Luke
It has been said that the Gospel of Luke is a Greek literary work. This is evident from its prologue. The prologue is formally structured, conforms to Greek literary custom, refers to the works of other writers, and claims that a most careful examination of the facts was done. The gospel's Greek language and style are elegant, and it avoids Hebrew, Aramaic, and Latin words. This suggests it was written for a Greek readership, Theophilus in particular.
Luke's gospel emphasizes the gracious forgiveness of God in the person of Jesus of Nazareth. The first declaration in Luke's gospel about Jesus' words is that they were “gracious words that were coming out of his mouth” (cf. Luke 4:22), for he spoke good news to the poor, of freedom for the imprisoned, and of recovery of sight for the blind. Jesus' forgiveness inspires loving service (cf. Luke 7:36-50). Jesus' Parables of the Prodigal or Lost Son (cf. Luke 15:9-31) and of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector (cf. Luke 18:9-14) hold out the assurance of the Lord's forgiveness as a loving Father and merciful God. Jesus' words at the house of Zacchaeus epitomize and encompass his mission: “For the Son of Man came to seek and to save that which was lost” (Luke 19:10). And while on the cross Jesus opens the gates of paradise to the criminal on the cross next to his own (cf. Luke 23:43).
In Luke's gospel Jesus is the Savior of the lowly and the lost. The good news that Christ the Savior was born was first proclaimed to lowly shepherds (cf. Luke 2:10,11). Jesus received sinners and ate with them (cf. Luke 15:2). Jesus' Parables of the Lost Sheep and the Lost Coin relate Jesus' joy in finding and saving the lost (cf. Luke 15:3-10).
Luke's gospel portrays Jesus as the universal Savior of all. Luke's genealogy traces Jesus' ancestry back to Adam, the father of mankind (cf. Luke 3:23-38). Gentile soldiers came to be baptized and instructed by John the Baptist, Jesus' forerunner (cf. Luke 3:14). Jesus reached out to the Samaritans, (cf. Luke 9:51,52; 17:11-19).
In the Gospel of Luke Jesus repeatedly spoke out against greed and the love of money and the worldly pleasures it would buy. He pronounced woe upon the rich, for they were receiving their comfort in full, in contrast to his saying the poor were blessed (cf. Luke 6:24). In his Parable of the Sower and the Seed, Jesus spoke of the seed of his Word that is choked out by life's worries, riches, and pleasures (cf. Luke 8:14). Jesus refused to arbitrate the division of an inheritance between two brothers, and used the occasion to warn the crowd against greed and to tell his Parable of the Rich Fool, who lost his soul because he was not rich toward God (cf. Luke 12:13-21). Jesus instructed his disciples not to worry about having the necessities of life, because God would provide for them. Rather, they should seek first the kingdom of God and those necessities would be given to them as well (cf. Luke 12:22-31). His said his disciples should sell their possessions and store up treasure in heaven (cf. Luke 12:32-34). Jesus' Parable of the Prodigal or Lost Son revealed the sinfulness of dedicating one's life to enjoying the pleasures of the world (cf. Luke 15:11-24). Jesus' Parable of the Shrewd Manager taught to use worldly wealth to gain friends for eternity (cf. Luke 16:1-9). Jesus also taught his disciples that trustworthiness was expected of them even in handling worldly wealth, which was much less than the true riches, and that they cannot serve God and Money (cf. Luke 16:10-13). Jesus revealed that money and worldly wealth are nothing to God (cf. Luke 16:14,15). Jesus taught the story of the rich man, who for all his wealth perished in hell, while poor Lazarus received eternal life (cf. Luke 16:19-26). Jesus said that as in the days of Noah, the people of the world who live for the here and the now would suddenly be destroyed in the judgment that they were unprepared for (cf. Luke 17:26-29). When the rich ruler would not part with his great wealth to follow Jesus, Jesus declared that it was easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God (cf. Luke 18:18-25). Jesus' Parable of the Ten Minas taught that all would be held accountable for their stewardship in using what he gave them to use for him and for the building of his kingdom, especially his gospel (cf. Luke 19:11-27).
Luke in his gospel also emphasized the Holy Spirit and his work. The Holy Spirit was active in the life and ministry of John the Baptist (cf. Luke 1:15-117; in the life and ministry of Jesus (cf. Luke 1:35; 3:16,22; 4:1,14,18; 10:21); in the life of Elizabeth (cf. Luke 1:41,42); in the faith and praise of Zechariah (cf. Luke 1:67-69); in the life and praise of Simeon (cf. Luke 2:25-35); in the ministry and trials of his disciples (cf. Luke 12:10-12; 24:49).
Luke's gospel is characterized with a warmth and tenderness. From Luke the church is now filled with the music of Mary's Magnificat (cf. Luke 1:46-55) and the Song of Simeon (cf. Luke 2:29-32). From Luke the church is set aglow with the nativity account of Christ each Christmas (cf. Luke 2).
Luke presented Jesus as a man of prayer more so than the other gospels (cf. Luke 3:21; 5:16; 6:12; 9:18; 9:28,29; 22:31,32; 22:41-46; 23:34; 23:46). Luke also presented Jesus' teachings on prayer (cf. Luke 11:1-13; 18:1-8; 18:9-14; 22:39,40).
Luke in his gospel gave women a special place and significance in the life and ministry of Jesus, such as Elizabeth (cf. Luke 1:24,25; 1:41-45; 1:57-60) and Mary (cf. Luke 1:26-56). The nativity of Christ is Mary's firsthand story (cf. Luke 2:1-38), as is no doubt the account of Jesus in the temple at the age of twelve (cf. Luke 2:41-51). In Luke's gospel appear Anna (cf. Luke 2:36-38), Peter's mother-in-law (cf. Luke 4:38,39), the widow of Nain on whom Jesus had compassion and raised her son from the dead (cf. Luke 7:11-17), the sinful woman who anointed Jesus as an expression of her love for his forgiving her sins (cf. Luke 7:36-50), the women who followed Jesus and helped to support his ministry (cf. Luke 8:1-3), Jairus' daughter whom Jesus raised from the dead and the woman he healed who had been bleeding for twelve years (cf. Luke 8:40-56), Mary and Martha (cf. Luke 10:38-42), the woman who had been crippled by a demon for eighteen years whom Jesus healed on the Sabbath (cf. Luke 13:10-17), Jesus' Parable about the woman who lost her coin (cf. Luke 15:8-10), Jesus' Parable of the Persistent Widow which taught his disciples to pray persistently (cf. Luke 18:1-18), the widow's offering of two mites which was an outstanding example of faith and love for God and of stewardship (cf. Luke 21:1-4), the women who wept for Jesus as he was being led out to be crucified and to whom he reached out to bring them to repentance and faith (cf. Luke 23:27-31), the women who stood below the cross and at Jesus' burial (cf. Luke 23:49, 55, 56), the women who went to the tomb on Easter morning to anoint Jesus' body properly for burial and who were the first to hear the good news of Jesus' resurrection (cf. Luke 24:1-11).
Luke alone fit the life and ministry of Jesus Christ into the historical framework of the contemporary world. Herod was king of Judea when John the Baptist's coming birth was announced (cf. Luke 1:5). The birth of Jesus Christ occurred in connection with the census ordered by Caesar Augustus and when Quirinius was governor of Syria (cf. Luke 2:1,2). John the Baptist began his public ministry in the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, Herod was tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip was tetrarch of Iturea and Traconitis, and Lysanias was tetrarch of Abilene (cf. Luke 3:1), which was also during the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas (cf. Luke 3:2).
Theme Of The Gospel Of Luke
Jesus, The Universal Savior, Came To Seek And To Save The Lost
Outline Of The Gospel Of Luke
The Prologue, Luke 1:1-4
Part 1: The Beginning Of The Gospel Of Jesus, The Savior Of All
A. The angel Gabriel announces the coming birth of John the Baptist to Zechariah, Luke 1:5-25
B. The angel Gabriel announces the coming birth of Jesus Christ, the Savior, to Mary, Luke 1:26-38
C. Mary visits Elizabeth. The infant John leaps for joy and Elizabeth by the Spirit gives praise that the mother of her Lord has come to her, Luke 1:39-45
D. Mary sings her song of praise to the Lord, Luke 1:46-56
E. John the Baptist is born and named, Luke 1:57-66
F. Zechariah sings his song of praise to the Lord, Luke 1:67-80
G. Jesus is born in Bethlehem, Luke 2:1-7
H. An angel announces to the shepherds the birth of the Christ, who is the Savior of all people, for which reason a choir of angels sing God's praise, Luke 2:8-14
I. The shepherds see Christ Jesus, the Savior, and glorify God for what they had seen and heard, Luke 2:15-20
J. Jesus is named and presented to the Lord in the temple, Luke 2:21-24
K. In fulfillment of the Lord's promise to him, Simeon sees Christ, the Savior. Simeon praises the Lord for having seen the salvation that the Lord had prepared for all people. The Savior child would be for the light of the Gentiles and the glory of Israel, Luke 2:25-35
L. The widow and prophetess Anna thanks God for seeing the infant Savior and speaks of him to those who were looking for the redemption of Jerusalem, Luke 2:36-38
M. Joseph and Mary return to Nazareth, where they raise the infant Savior, who is filled with wisdom and on whom the grace of God rests, Luke 2:39,40
N. Jesus comes to his heavenly Father's house at the age of twelve, where he amazes the teachers with his understanding. He then grows to his adulthood in Nazareth, and in favor with God and men, Luke 2:41-51
O. John the Baptist begins and conducts his ministry to prepare the people for the ministry of Christ Jesus, the Savior, until John is imprisoned by Herod, Luke 3:1-20
P. Jesus' genealogy shows he descended from Adam, the father of mankind, to be the Savior of all, Luke 3:21-38
Q. The Savior Jesus, as our substitute, resists and defeats the devil's temptations for us, Luke 4:1-13
Part 2: Jesus Conducts His Ministry In Galilee To Seek And To Save The Lost, Luke 4:14-9:50
A. Jesus' early Galilean ministry to seek and to save the lost, Luke 4:14-6:11
1. Jesus' teaching ministry to seek and to save the lost, Luke 4:14-37
a. Jesus teaches the Jews in their synagogues in Galilee, Luke 4:14,15
b. Jesus teaches his home townspeople in Nazareth that he is Christ, the Savior, as foretold by Isaiah. Since the Jews of Nazareth do not accept him as the promised Christ and Savior, he indicates that his gospel will be taken to the Gentiles. For this his townspeople want to kill him, Luke 4:16-30
c. Jesus teaches in Capernaum, and the people are amazed at the authority of his message. Jesus also amazes the people with his authority over demons, when he orders a demon out of a demonically possessed man who is in the synagogue. The fame of Jesus spreads throughout the surrounding area, Luke 4:31-37
2. Jesus' ministry of miracles and mercy to seek and to save the lost, Luke 4:38-5:26
a. Jesus heals Peter's mother-in-law, many others as well, and frees the demonically possessed from their demons. Jesus then carries his preaching ministry to the synagogues in Judea, Luke 4:38-44
b. Jesus reveals his divine power over nature by causing a miraculous catch of fish. Jesus calls Peter, Andrew, James, and John in the second year of his ministry to be his full-time disciples, that they may carry on his ministry in the future to seek and to save the lost, Luke 5:1-11
c. Jesus heals a leper. His fame spreads, so that crowds come to hear him and to be healed, Luke 5:12-16
d. Jesus first forgives the sins of a paralytic and then heals him to prove he has the divine authority to forgive sins, Luke 5:17-26
3. Jesus calls Levi (Matthew) the tax collector to follow him as his disciple, and associates and eats with a large crowd of tax collectors to seek and to save them, Luke 5:27-32
4. Jesus' ministry to seek and to save the lost runs into opposition, Luke 5:33-6:11
a. When the Pharisees and teachers of the law question the failure of Jesus' disciples to fast, Jesus explains they do not fast because of their joy of having him with them, and that the power of the New Testament gospel does not fit into the Old Testament religious forms, Luke 5:33-39
b. When the Pharisees complain that his disciples were violating their Sabbath regulations by picking heads of grain on the Sabbath, Jesus declares that he is the Lord of the Sabbath. He then heals a man's shriveled hand on the Sabbath to teach it is right to do good and to save life on the Sabbath, Luke 6:1-11
B. Jesus' later Galilean ministry to seek and to save the lost, Luke 6:12-9:21
1. Jesus names his twelve apostles, Luke 6:12-16
2. Jesus trains his apostles, Luke 6:17-49
a. Jesus brings his apostles into contact with the multitudes, and by means of his healing miracles teaches them to conduct a ministry of mercy for the oppressed, Luke 6:17-19
b. Jesus preaches a sermon to teach his disciples, Luke 6:20-49
b.1 Blessing for his believing disciples; woe to the unbelieving worldly ones, Luke 6:20-26
b.2 Love your enemies, Luke 6:27-36
b.3 Do not be judgmental, Luke 6:37-42
b.4 Recognize what a person is, good or bad, by his fruits, Luke 6:45-45
b.5 The wise builder builds his life on the teachings of Jesus; the foolish builder does not, Luke 6:46-49
3. Jesus commends the great faith of the Roman centurion, who had come to believe in the power of Jesus' word, and then Jesus heals the centurion's servant, Luke 7:1-10
4. Jesus shows his divine compassion and power at Nain through raising the widow's son from the dead, Luke 7:11-17
5. Jesus reveals to John the Baptist's disciples that he is the promised Christ through his miracles of mercy and his preaching the gospel to the poor. Jesus declares John was his forerunner to prepare the people for his ministry of seeking and saving the lost. Jesus speaks out against the Pharisees and teachers of the law who had rejected John's ministry as well as his own, Luke 7:18-35
6. Jesus is anointed by a sinful woman, who shows the greatness of her love for his forgiving her sins, Luke 7:36-50
7. On a preaching tour Jesus tells his Parable of the Sower and the Seed to the multitudes, but he explains its meaning only to his disciples. Jesus tells his disciples his Word is intended to enlighten people. Thus they should listen carefully that they may teach it to others, Luke 8:1-18
8. Jesus stresses the importance of hearing his Word by saying that his mother and brothers are those who hear God's Word, Luke 8:19-21
9. Jesus reveals his divine power in his ministry of mercy to seek and to save the lost, Luke 8:22-56
a. To the amazement of his disciples, Jesus' word calms the storm, Luke 8:22-25
b. The power of Jesus' word frees Legion from the many demons who were tormenting him, Luke 8:26-39
c. The power of Jesus' word raises Jairus' daughter from the dead, Luke 8:40-42a & 49-56
d. Jesus' divine power heals the woman who had suffered from bleeding for twelve years, Luke 8:42b-48
e. Jesus gives his twelve apostles power to drive out demons and to heal the sick. After further instructing them, he then sends them out to preach the kingdom of God, Luke 9:1-9
f. Jesus feeds the five thousand, Luke 9:10-17
10. Peter, in behalf of the group of disciples, confesses Jesus is the Christ of God, Luke 9:18-21
C. Jesus brings his ministry to seek and to save the lost in Galilee to a close, Luke 9:22-50
1. Jesus announces his forthcoming suffering and death and his resurrection from the dead, Luke 9:22
2. Jesus instructs his disciples that to follow him they must also deny themselves to carry the cross assigned to them in connection with confessing him and his gospel, Luke 9:23-27
3. Jesus allows his three closest disciples to see his divine glory, which he had been keeping hidden. They see the glory into which he will enter through his suffering and death. They also hear God the Father's declaration that Jesus is his Son and the Father's command to listen to Jesus, whom he has chosen, Luke 9:28-36
4. Down from the Mount of Transfiguration, Jesus again confronts the suffering caused by Satan and sin. To seek and to save the lost, who are showing their lack of faith, Jesus mercifully casts out a demon from a boy, whom his disciples could not help. Knowing the evil powers of Satan are about to be unleashed against himself as well, Jesus tells his disciples that he will be betrayed, which they do not understand, Luke 9:37-45
5. Jesus instructs his disciples that he who is least among them is the greatest, and they should not interfere with others' ministrations in his name, Luke 9:46-50
Part 3: Jesus' Later Judean And Perean Ministry To Seek And To Save The Lost, Luke 9:51-18:30
A. Jesus' later Judean ministry to seek and to save the lost, Luke 9:51-13:21
1. Knowing the time for his ascension into heaven is drawing near, Jesus sets out for Jerusalem on what will prove to be a round-about route for teaching the lost, Luke 9:51
2. Jesus is rejected by Samaritans, because he is heading to Jerusalem. Jesus rebukes James and John for desiring to bring down divine judgment on the Samaritans, Luke 9:52-56
3. Jesus makes it known that following him and serving in his ministry requires self-sacrifice, commitment, and dedication, Luke 9:57-62
4. Jesus sends out seventy-two other disciples as his heralds, after telling them that more workers are needed to bring in the harvest of lost souls, and after instructing them in how to conduct themselves in their ministry, Luke 10:1-16
5. Jesus speaks to the seventy-two when they return, Luke 10:17-20
a. Their preaching of the gospel was causing Satan's downfall, Luke 10:18
b. They should rejoice more in having their names written in heaven than in the authority he gave them, Luke 10:19,20
6. Filled with the Spirit of joy, Luke 10:21-24
a. Jesus praises his Father for revealing his gospel of salvation to his followers through himself, Luke 10:21,22
b. Jesus informs his disciples how blessed they are to be able to see and hear the fulfillment of the Old Testament messianic promises of salvation, Luke 10:23,24
7. Jesus tells his Parable of the Good Samaritan to teach his disciples and an expert in the law that their neighbor is everyone who crosses their path, to whom they should show mercy, Luke 10:25-37
8. At the home of Mary and Martha Jesus makes it known that listening to his Word is the one thing needed above all else, Luke 10:38-42
9. Jesus teaches his disciples to pray, Luke 11:1-13
a. The Lord's Prayer, Luke 11:1-4
b. Persistently, Luke 11:5-8
c. Believing their requests will be granted, Luke 11:9,10
d. Knowing the Father will give them the Holy Spirit, Luke 11:11-13
10. Jesus faces opposition from those who accuse him of being in league with Satan and who demand a miraculous sign to confirm he is the Christ sent by God, Luke 11:14-54
a. Jesus asserts how foolish the accusation is that he is in league with Satan, when in fact he drives out demons by the power of God, which proves the kingdom of God has come to his detractors, Luke 11:17-20
b. Jesus asserts he is mightier than Satan, and in casting out demons he is taking souls away from Satan's dominion, Luke 11:21,22
c. Jesus challenges his detractors. Those who do not side with him in opposing Satan are his enemies on Satan's side, Luke 11:23
d. Jesus reveals that when he has cast out a demon, it looks for a resting place. If the person's heart is not fortified to resist the demon, it may return with other demons to make him worse off than he was to begin with, Luke 11:24-26
e. In contrast to his detractors, when a woman in the crowd asserts the blessedness of his mother, Jesus clarifies the blessed are those who hear and obey the Word of God, Luke 11:27,28
f. Jesus declares those who demand a miraculous sign to prove he is the Christ of God are a wicked generation. Only the sign of Jonah, his resurrection from the dead on the third day, will be given to them. They will be condemned for rejecting his wisdom and for not repenting as a result of his preaching, Luke 11:29-32
g. Jesus has no need to give his detractors in the crowd a sign, for he himself, as well as his ministry of preaching and performing miracles, are like a burning lamp. Since they cannot see he is the Christ and the Son of God, they are spiritually blind in the darkness of unbelief. They should see spiritually who he is, that they may be fully enlightened and be a light of good works which are readily seen, Luke 11:33-36
h. Jesus pronounces woes on the Pharisees and the teachers of the law, Luke 11:37-52
h.1 The Pharisees are guilty of greed and wickedness, Luke 11:39-41
h.2 Woe on the Pharisees for their neglecting justice and the love of God, Luke 11:42
h.3 Woe on the Pharisees for their love to be honored by men, Luke 11:43
h.4 Woe on the Pharisees who are full of death and corruption, which contaminates others in their ignorance, Luke 11:44
h.5 Woe on the experts in the law who burden the conscience of others with laws that they themselves do not keep, Luke 11:45,46
h.6 Woe on the experts in the law, who like their forefathers, remain hostile to God's spokesmen and refuse to heed the Word of God his spokesmen speak, Luke 11:47-51
h.7 Woe on the experts in the law who take away the knowledge of salvation that is in Jesus from others, and in that way hinder others from entering the kingdom of God, Luke 11:52
i. The Pharisees and teachers of the law fiercely oppose Jesus, try to entrap him, and look to find fault with him, Luke 11:53
11. Jesus prepares his disciples for the persecution they will face when they boldly speak the truth, as he experienced in boldly speaking out against the Pharisees and the teachers of the law, Luke 12:1-12
a. His disciples should guard themselves against the hypocrisies of the Pharisees. Instead of covering up their real convictions, his disciples should boldly proclaim the gospel that he has disclosed to them, Luke 12:1-3
b. His disciples should not fear those who may kill them for preaching the truth of the gospel, but fear God their judge, who does not forget them who are precious to him, Luke 12:4-7
c. His disciples who readily acknowledge him, Jesus will acknowledge in heaven as belonging to him. But those who disown him, he will disown in heaven, Luke 12:8,9
d. Jesus informs his disciples that as a result of their preaching the gospel, anyone who speaks evilly against the Holy Spirit--the Spirit who is testifying through them about Jesus--will not be forgiven for their sin against the Holy Spirit, Luke 12:10
e. Jesus encourages his disciples not to worry about what to say when they are persecuted and charged before religious and secular authorities. The Holy Spirit will teach them what to say, Luke 12:11,12
12. Jesus tells the crowd his Parable of the Rich Fool. To be his faithful disciples they must guard themselves against greed for an abundance of possessions, so they may be rich in every way toward God, by whom they will be called to judgment, Luke 12:13-21
13. Jesus instructs his disciples not to worry about having the necessities of life and setting their hearts on those things, like the world's unbelievers do. Rather, his disciples are to trust in their heavenly Father for those things, for he knows what they need, and they are to seek first his kingdom which he has already given to them. His disciples' treasure will be the treasure in heaven, Luke 12:22-34
14. Jesus urges his disciples to watch for his return in glory to judge the world, Luke 12:35-13:9
a. His disciples need to be ready to receive him when he appears, Luke 12:35,36
b. His disciples who are watching for him when he returns will be served at the heavenly wedding banquet of the faithful, Luke 12:37
c. His disciples need to be ready at all times, for they do not know when he will suddenly appear, Luke 12:38-40
d. His disciples, whom he makes his leaders in his church, are expected to be found feeding his church with his Word when he returns. But those leaders who abuse the church members he has entrusted to them, and who neglect their duty to wine and dine themselves to excess, he will suddenly come to destroy and condemn, Luke 12:41-46
e. His disciples who know his will but do not do it, so they might be ready for his return, will be punished more severely in hell than those who do not know his will, Luke 12:47,48
f. Jesus has come to bring the fire of judgment on the earth, but it is not yet the time for him to do so. He must first undergo his baptism of suffering and death. He did not come to bring with his message of salvation peace to the earth but division, which he sees is already happening, Luke 12:49-53
g. Jesus rebukes the crowd for failing to interpret the times that point to the coming judgment. As in their personal relationships to make themselves right with each other, so, too, while they have the opportunity they ought to make themselves right with God before his judgment comes and they are cast into hell, Luke 12:54-59
h. Jesus tells some in the crowd that they are no better people than the Galileans or people in Jerusalem who were suddenly killed. If those in the crowd do not repent, they too will perish, Luke 13:1-5
i. Jesus tells the crowd his Parable of the Unfruitful Fig Tree to teach them God looks for fruits of repentance and cuts down in judgment those who do not produce them, Luke 13:6-9
15. Jesus, in his ministry to seek and to save the lost, heals a crippled woman on the Sabbath. He then rebukes the synagogue ruler who needs to repent of his false understanding of the purpose of the Sabbath. It is a day to be set free to praise God, as Jesus had mercifully freed the woman from her crippled condition so she could praise God, Luke 13:10-17
16. Jesus teaches two parables about the kingdom of God, the kingdom in which he rules by his Word in the hearts of those who believe in him, Luke 13:18-21
a. In his Parable of the Mustard Seed Jesus teaches that by the power of his Word his church of believers grows externally in size, from a small beginning to a very large end, Luke 13:18,19
b. In his Parable of the Yeast Jesus teaches that by the power of his Word his church of believers grows internally and spiritually in a way that is not observable, Luke 13:20,21
B. Jesus' later Perean ministry to seek and to save the lost, Luke 13:22-18:30
1. Jesus continues his round-about journey to Jerusalem, so as to continue his teaching ministry to seek and to save the lost. He advises one person not to concern himself with how many will be saved, but to strive without delay to be saved himself by entering the heavenly banquet through the narrow door, which is Jesus himself. Once this door is closed, it will be too late to be saved. Then the damned will weep in hell, while the saints rejoice at the banquet in heaven, Luke 13:22-30
2. Jesus instructs some Pharisees that the threat of Herod Antipas will not stop him from conducting his ministry to seek and to save the lost until he reaches his goal--his cross in Jerusalem and his resurrection on the third day. Like the prophets before him, he must die in Jerusalem, a city of people for which he weeps because they were rejecting him and were going to their destruction, Luke 13:31-35
3. At dinner in the home of a prominent Pharisee:
a. Jesus heals a man on the Sabbath to teach the Pharisees and experts in the law that it is lawful according to God's law of love to show mercy on the Sabbath, Luke 14:1-6
b. Jesus instructs the proud guests who exalt themselves that they should humble themselves, for God will humble the proud and exalt the lowly, Luke 14:7-11
c. Jesus instructs his host to invite the poor to his banquet that he may be blessed, Luke 14:12-14
d. Jesus tells his Parable of the Great Banquet to the dinner guests to teach them that, since they are rejecting his invitation to the heavenly banquet, he will invite others in their place and they will be excluded from heaven, Luke 14:15-24
4. Jesus teaches the crowd the cost of being his disciple, Luke 14:25-35
a. The disciple must love Jesus more than anyone else, even more than the disciple's own life, Luke 14:25,26
b. The disciple must carry the cross laid on him and follow Jesus, Luke 14:27
c. The disciple should not begin to be Jesus' disciple unless he is prepared to pay the cost for completing his discipleship, Luke 14:28-30
d. The disciple must be prepared to give up everything he has to be Jesus' disciple, Luke 14:31-34
e. It is good to be a disciple. But if the disciple loses his commitment, dedication, and self-sacrifice that it takes to be Jesus' disciple, then he has become worthless and is fit to be thrown out, Luke 14:34,35a
f. Jesus says he who has the spiritual ears to hear should listen carefully to all that he is teaching, Luke 14:35b
5. Jesus welcomes the tax collectors and sinners who want to hear him. In response to the Pharisees' and the teachers' of the law complaint about his doing so, Jesus teaches three parables to teach them that the joy of his ministry is to seek and to save the lost, Luke 15:1-32
a. Jesus tells his Parable of the Lost Sheep. He is dedicated to seeking the lost sinner. When that sinner repents, there is much rejoicing in heaven, Luke 15:3-7
b. Jesus tells his Parable of the Lost Coin. He is dedicated to searching carefully for the lost sinner. When he finds that lost sinner who then repents, he calls on his friends to rejoice with him, for there is much rejoicing in the presence of the angels in heaven over the sinner's repenting, Luke 15:8-10
c. Jesus tells his Parable of the Prodigal or Lost Son. When the lost sinner repents and turns from his sin to return to God, the Father rejoices, forgives him, and welcomes him with open arms. But the faithful child of God should not complain that his Father forgives and welcomes the sinner who was lost, when that sinner repents and turns to God, Luke 15:11-32
6. Jesus gives his disciples further instructions about the proper management of money, Luke 16:1-31
a. Jesus tells his Parable of the Shrewd Manger to impress on his disciples to use their money to gain friends for eternity, who will welcome them into heaven. His disciples are to be trustworthy in handling the money God entrusts to them, so God may entrust to them the true riches. For they cannot serve both God and Money, unlike the Pharisees who loved money, which is detestable to God, Luke 16:1-15
b. Jesus interjects additional instructions, Luke 16:16-18
b.1 In the Old Testament era up to the time of John the Baptist, the Law and the Prophets were preached. Beginning with Jesus in the messianic New Testament era the gospel of salvation is being preached, for which reason many are seeking to enter the kingdom of God. The preaching of the gospel, however, does not invalidate or negate the law, Luke 16:16,17
b.2 The law will be maintained. Divorce to remarry is adultery, Luke 16:18
c. Jesus tells his Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus, which is not necessarily a parable but could be an actual historical account. The rich man loved his money and the pleasures it gave him, but he was not rich toward God in helping the distressed Lazarus. He did not use his wealth to gain friends, like poor Lazarus, for eternity, who would then welcome him into heaven. Thus he was condemned to hell to be tormented. And only the power of the Word can lead such a sinner to repent, Luke 16:19-31
7. Jesus teaches his disciples what they are called on to do, Luke 17:1-10
a. He teaches them to do nothing that would cause another Christian disciple to fall from faith into sin, Luke 17:1-3a
b. He teaches them to gently rebuke a fellow Christian who has slid into sin and to forgive him each time he repents, Luke 17:3b,4
c. He teaches them not to allow a weakness of faith to prevent them from doing the preceding. They are to do it with the faith that they have, Luke 17:5,6
d. He teaches them not to think they deserve special thanks and rewards for doing what they were called on to do, for they are unworthy servants who have only done what was their duty to do, Luke 17:7-10
8. Traveling his round-about route to Jerusalem, Jesus heals ten lepers. Only one returns to give thanks, a Samaritan of the people of Samaria whom the Jews despise. Jesus uses this occasion to teach that God looks for thanks and praise in return for his acts of kindness. Jesus also shows by assuring the Samaritan that his faith has saved him, that the gospel knows no ethnic or racial barriers and there is no prejudice in the kingdom of God, Luke 17:11-19
9. In response to the Pharisees' question about when the kingdom of God would come, Jesus gives instructions about the coming of the kingdom, Luke 17:20-37
a. With Jesus' preaching the gospel of God's salvation, the kingdom of God had already come and was among the people, Luke 17:20,21
b. The disciples would not see Jesus in the kingdom of God's glory as soon as they would like to see him, Luke 17:22
c. Jesus will not usher in the kingdom of God's glory without his disciples' seeing him or knowing about the kingdom's coming. His coming in glory will be seen by, and known to, all, Luke 17:23,24
d. Jesus will not come in the kingdom of God's glory until after he has first suffered for the sins of the world and has been rejected, Luke 17:25
e. Jesus' coming in the kingdom of God's glory will catch the people of this world unprepared. They will be living in their materialistic, hedonistic lifestyles, unaware of the swift destruction that he is about to bring upon them, Luke 17:26-30
f. Jesus' coming in the kingdom of God's glory will happen quickly, in a moment, with no time to gather up one's worldly possessions. His disciples must be ready and willing to leave behind the life they have had on earth to enter into the eternal kingdom of glory, lest they perish like Lot's wife did for coveting her past life in Sodom, Luke 17:31-33
g. Jesus' coming in the kingdom of God's glory will usher in the final judgment that separates family and friends, Luke 17:34-36
h. The where of Jesus' coming in the kingdom of God's glory will be as obvious to see and to know as the location of a corpse that is marked by the gathering of the vultures, Luke 17:37
10. Jesus tells his disciples his Parable of the Persistent Widow. Prior to the coming of the glorious kingdom of God his disciples will suffer persecution and many injustices. Jesus teaches his disciples to pray persistently for God to give them justice, with the confidence he will certainly do so soon, Luke 18:1-8
11. Jesus tells his Parable of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector to the proud and the self-righteous, who think they are better than others are and that they themselves are right with God. Jesus teaches them that there is no merciful forgiveness for those who exalt themselves. God extends his merciful forgiveness only to those who humble themselves before him and confess they are a most unworthy sinner, Luke 18:9-14
12. Jesus teaches his disciples that in his ministry to seek and to save the lost the little babies are to be welcomed no less than the adults. The kingdom of God's grace belongs to them also, who are an example to the adults to receive God's grace as ones who have done nothing in their weakness to deserve it but accept it as a pure gift of God, Luke 18:15-17
13. Jesus had just explained that to enter the kingdom of God's grace for eternal life one must receive it like a little baby who has done nothing to earn it. Jesus then seeks to save a certain rich ruler, who thinks there must be some special thing he must do to guarantee his receiving eternal life, Luke 18:18-30
a. Jesus tells the rich ruler that no one, including the rich ruler himself, is good, except for God. To bring the rich ruler to a knowledge of his sinfulness, Jesus tells him that to enter the kingdom of God he must keep the commandments. The rich ruler asserts he has kept the commandments all his life, and thereby shows his self-righteous pride. Knowing the rich rulers' love for money and that the ruler has not even kept the first commandment to love God above all, Jesus tells him to give away all his wealth and to become his disciple. When the rich ruler is unwilling to part with his wealth to follow Jesus, Jesus tells him how impossible it is for him to enter the kingdom of God, Luke 18:18-25
b. The bystanders are aghast to hear how impossible it is for the rich to be saved, for they think the rich have the advantage of wealth that they do not have. Jesus tells them that what is impossible for men to do for themselves is possible for God to do. No one can possibly save himself, not even the rich. Only God by his grace can save a person, rich or poor, Luke 18:26,27
c. When Peter notes that the disciples, unlike the rich ruler, had left everything to follow Jesus, Jesus assures them that they, who have by faith made such self-sacrifices for the sake of the kingdom of God, will receive much more in this life and eternal life in the age to come, Luke 18:28-30
Part 4: Jesus Proceeds To Jerusalem To Seek And To Save The Lost, Luke 18:31-19:27
A. The final leg of the journey to Jerusalem, Luke 18:31-34
1. For the sake of his disciples' faith Jesus informs them that they are going to Jerusalem. There, in fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies, he will suffer at the hands of the Romans, be killed, and rise on the third day, Luke 18:31-33
2. The disciples do not understand what Jesus tells them, Luke 18:34
B. Approaching Jericho Jesus reaches out to the blind beggar, Bartimaeus, Luke 18:35-43
1. The blind beggar, Bartimaeus, confesses that Jesus is the long promised Christ, the Son of David, and calls on Jesus to have mercy on him, Luke 18:25-39
2. When Bartimaeus addresses Jesus as Lord and pleads for his sight, Jesus heals him and commends his faith. Bartimaeus and the crowd then praise God, Luke 18:40-43
C. In Jericho Jesus seeks to save Zacchaeus, a chief tax collector, Luke 19:1-10
1. Jesus calls Zacchaeus down from the tree that he may stay at Zacchaeus' house, Luke 19:1-6
2. When the crowd accuses Jesus of associating with such a sinner, Zacchaeus produces his fruits of repentance. He gives half of his possessions to the poor and promises to restore fourfold whatever amount he may have cheated anyone, Luke 19:7,8
3. Jesus announces that Zacchaeus has been saved, and that he himself had come to seek and to save the lost, Luke 19:9,10
D. Nearing Jerusalem, Jesus instructs the people, Luke 19:11-27
1. The people think that when Jesus reaches Jerusalem the kingdom of God will at once appear visibly, Luke 19:11
2. Jesus tells the people his Parable of the Ten Minas, Luke 19:12-27
a. To teach the people that first he would ascend into heaven to be exalted as King before the kingdom of God's glory would appear upon his return, Luke 19:12
b. To teach his disciples that he was entrusting to them the riches of his gospel and their resources to put to work for him until he returned, Luke 19:13
c. To teach his disciples and the crowd that though his own Jewish people hated and rejected him, he would be made King over them, Luke 19:14,15a
d. To teach his disciples that he would call them to account as his servants for what they had accomplished in his absence with his gospel and their resources, Luke 19:15
e. To teach his disciples that those who faithfully used his gospel and their resources to increase his kingdom of saved souls would be graciously rewarded, Luke 19:16-19
f. To teach his disciples that those who proved to be his unfaithful servants in using his gospel and their resources would be judged and lose what had been given to them, Luke 19:20-24
g. To teach his disciples that those who had obtained much for him would be given much. But those who had nothing to show for what was their time of service would lose all that they have, Luke 19:24-26
h. To teach his disciples and the crowd that he would judge and destroy his Jewish people who had rejected him as their King, Luke 19:27
Part 5: Jesus' Final Ministry In Jerusalem To Seek And To Save The Lost, Luke 19:28-21:38
A. Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem, Luke 19:28-44
1. The multitudes welcome Jesus as the promised messianic King of the Jews and praise God for the miracles he had performed, Luke 19:28-38
2. Pharisees call on Jesus to rebuke his followers for welcoming him as the messianic King of the Jews. Jesus responds that if the crowds did not cry out in praise, the stones would do so, Luke 19:39,40
3. Jesus weeps over Jerusalem because of the people's spiritual ignorance, which prevents them from seeing he brought them peace from God. Because the people of Jerusalem have been rejecting him, Jesus announces that they and their city would be destroyed by their enemies, the Romans, Luke 19:41-44
B. Jesus teaches at the temple to seek and to save the lost, Luke 19:45-21:38
1. For the second time Jesus cleanses the temple of the profiteering merchants, Luke 19:45,46
2. Each day Jesus teaches at the temple to seek and to save the lost, while the Jewish leaders seek some way to kill him, Luke 19:47,48
3. While Jesus is preaching the gospel of salvation to the people in the temple, the chief priests and teachers of the law question his authority to cleanse the temple of the merchants and to teach his gospel of salvation. When they refuse to acknowledge to him the divine authority of John's baptism, he refuses to acknowledge to them his divine authority to do what he is doing, Luke 20:1-8
4. Jesus tells the people in the temple his Parable of the Wicked Tenants, Luke 20:9-19
a. To teach the people that God had planted his Jewish people and had entrusted their spiritual care to the chief priests and teachers of the law. But each time that God had sent his servants, the prophets, to proclaim his Word, those Jewish leaders rejected and beat them, Luke 20:9-12
b. To teach the people that God had sent his own beloved Son to them, whom those Jewish leaders were rejecting and would kill, Luke 20:13-15a
c. To teach the people that God would therefore destroy those Jewish leaders and give his kingdom to the Gentiles, Luke 20:15b,16
d. To teach the people that his being rejected by the Jewish leaders was in fulfillment of the prophecy in Psalm 118:22. Either they all humble themselves in complete repentance over him, or he will destroy them, Luke 20:17,18
e. The teachers of the law and the chief priests understand this parable is about them. They look for a way to arrest Jesus, but do not do so because they are afraid of the people's reactions if they did, Luke 20:19
5. Jesus refutes his enemies, the Jewish leaders, Luke 20:20-47
a. The Jewish leaders send spies to try to entrap Jesus into saying it is unlawful for the Jews to pay Roman taxes. If they can so entrap him, they intend to hand him over to Pilate for inciting a rebellion against Caesar. Jesus declares it is lawful to pay taxes to Caesar while still giving to God what is God's, Luke 20:20-26
b. Sadducees attempt to show that Jesus' teaching of the resurrection of the dead is erroneous by telling their story of the woman who married seven brothers. Jesus refutes the Sadducees. He declares there is no marital relationship in heaven and that even Moses had taught there was a resurrection of the dead. For Moses had written that God had said he is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Jesus then declares God's statement shows that those men are indeed living, for God is not the God of the dead but of the living, Luke 20:27-40
c. Jesus refutes the Pharisees (cf. Matthew 22:41-46) with David's words in Psalm 110:1, which clarifies that the promised Christ would be both the Lord himself as well as the physical descendant of David, Luke 20:41-44
d. Jesus teaches his disciples to beware of the teachers of the law, who, because of their sinful pride and hypocrisy, would be most severely punished, Luke 20:45-47
6. At the temple treasury Jesus watches the rich putting in their gifts, but praises the poor widow, who from her poverty gave the most of all, Luke 21:1-4
7. Jesus teaches his disciples about the signs of the end, Luke 21:5-36
a. Leaving the temple, Jesus' disciples marvel over the grandeur of the temple's buildings (cf. Matthew 24:1). Jesus announces the forthcoming destruction of the temple, Luke 21:5,6
b. On the Mount of Olives (cf. Matthew 24:3) the disciples ask when the temple would be destroyed and what sign to look for of this happening, Luke 21:7
c. Jesus teaches his disciples what signs to look for that point to his coming and to the end of all things, Luke 21:8-28
c.1 The signs that would occur in society and nature, Luke 21:8-11
c.2 The signs that would occur within the church on earth, Luke 21:12-19
c.3 The destruction of Jerusalem and the Jews as a nation, Luke 21:20-24
c.4 The last signs in the universe that signal Jesus' glorious return, Luke 21:25-28
d. Jesus tells his Parable of the Budding Fig Tree to teach his disciples that when they see all these preceding signs taking place, they will know his coming is at hand, Luke 21:29-33
e. Jesus teaches his disciples not to become weighed down with worldly dissipation and worries, but to remain watchful for his coming in judgment, Luke 21:34-36
8. Each day Jesus teaches in the temple by day and withdraws to the Mount of Olives at night, Luke 21:37,38
Part 6: Jesus' Suffering And Death To Save The Lost, Luke 22:1-23:56
A. Jesus' suffering at the hands of the Jews, Luke 22:1-71
1. Satan incites covetous Judas to bargain with the Jewish leaders to betray Jesus to them for a sum of money, Luke 22:1-6
2. Jesus has Peter and John prepare the Passover meal in the upper room, Luke 22:7-13
3. Jesus in the upper room at the Passover meal, Luke 22:14-38
a. Jesus announces his suffering is at hand. He looks forward to the true fulfillment of the Passover meal at the heavenly banquet in the kingdom of God's glory, Luke 22:14-18
b. Jesus institutes the Lord's Supper, Luke 22:19,20
c. Jesus announces one of his disciples will betray him, Luke 22:21-23
d. Jesus settles the disciples' dispute over which of them is the greatest, Luke 22:24-30
d.1 Jesus warns his disciples not to be like the pagan kings and lords who lord it over others, Luke 22:25,26a
d.2 Jesus teaches his disciples that the greatest among them is like the youngest and is the one who serves the others, as Jesus himself had modeled for them, Luke 22:26b,27
d.3 Jesus confers on his disciples the kingdom with the promise that they will reign with him in glory, Luke 22:28-30
e. Jesus speaks to Peter, Luke 22:31-34
e.1 Jesus informs Peter of Satan's request to test the disciples' faith and of Peter's turning from him. He instructs Peter to strengthen his Christian brothers when he himself has turned back, Luke 22:31,32
e.2 Jesus informs Peter that he will deny him three times, Luke 22:33,34
f. Jesus prepares his disciples for the difficult days of their apostolic ministries when, because of the hardships and persecution they will suffer, they will need money, the basic necessities, and protection, Luke 22:35-38
4. Jesus prays in Gethsemane on the Mount of Olives and faces the bitter prospect of his imminent suffering and death on the cross, Luke 22:39-46
5. Jesus meets his betrayer, Judas, who brings an armed crowd to arrest him, Luke 22:47-53
a. Judas betrays him with a kiss. Jesus seeks to lead Judas to repentance by calling his attention to what he was doing, Luke 22:47,48
b. Jesus' disciples ask if they should use their swords in his defense, and Peter (cf. John 18:10) cuts off the ear of the high priest's servant, Malchus. Jesus stops them and heals Malchus' ear, Luke 22:49-51
c. Jesus seeks to save the hardened Jewish leaders by causing them to question their actions to arrest him like he was leading a rebellion, when he in fact had been teaching in the temple and they had not stopped him then, Luke 22:52
d. Jesus asserts they would arrest him, however, because it was their hour when Satan's kingdom of darkness was reigning, Luke 22:53
6. Peter denies Jesus three times and weeps bitterly afterwards, Luke 22:54-62
7. Jesus is mocked and beaten by the Jewish leaders' guards. At daybreak when Jesus declares he is the Son of God, they condemn him to death, Luke 22:63-71
B. Jesus' suffering and death at the hands of the Romans, Luke 23:1-56
1. The Jewish leaders hand Jesus over to Pilate for execution, Luke 23:1,2
2. Pilate interrogates Jesus, announces Jesus' innocence, and upon hearing that Jesus is a Galilean, sends him to Herod Antipas, Luke 23:3-7
3. Herod mocks Jesus and sends him back to Pilate, Luke 23:8-12
4. When Pilate announces that neither he nor Herod find Jesus guilty of the charges made against him by the Jewish leaders, the Jewish mob cries out to release the insurrectionist and murderer Barabbas and to crucify Jesus, Luke 23:13-21
5. For the third time Pilate announces Jesus' innocence. But then he gives into the Jewish mob's desire to have Jesus crucified, Luke 23:22-25
6. Jesus is led out to be crucified, Luke 22:26-32
a. Simon from Cyrene is made to carry Jesus' cross, Luke 23:26
b. Jesus warns the women of Jerusalem not to weep for him but for themselves and their children, because of the destruction the Romans will bring upon them, Luke 23:27-31
c. Two criminals are also led out with Jesus to be crucified, Luke 23:32
7. The Roman soldiers crucify Jesus at the place of the Skull between the two criminals, then divide his clothes after Jesus prays for their forgiveness, Luke 23:33,34
8. The Jewish people and their leaders, the soldiers, and one of the criminals, all mock Jesus, Luke 23:35-39
9. The other criminal confesses Jesus' innocence and faith that Jesus is truly the King of a heavenly kingdom. Jesus reaches out to him with salvation by promising him that he will be in paradise, Luke 23:40-43
10. God shrouds Jesus' suffering in darkness for three hours until Jesus gives his innocent life into death to save the lost, Luke 23:44-46
11. The Roman centurion, who was in charge of Jesus' crucifixion, declares Jesus was a righteous man. He declares this amid the sorrow of the crowd and while the female followers of Jesus watch at a distance, Luke 23:47-49
12. Pilate turns the dead body of Jesus over to Joseph of Arimathea for burial. The women watch Jesus' body being buried, then return home to prepare spices to give him a proper burial, Luke 23:50-56
Part 7: Jesus' Resurrection And Ascension As The Exalted Savior Of Those Now Saved, Luke 24:1-53
A. Jesus' resurrection, Luke 24:1-49
1. The women discover the tomb is empty and hear from two angels that Jesus has risen from the dead. The women report this good news to the eleven disciples, who do not believe their report, Luke 24:1-11
2. Peter runs out to the tomb, sees the strips of cloth in the empty tomb, and goes away wondering what had happened, Luke 24:12
3. The resurrected Jesus, while concealing his identity, walks with the two disciples to Emmaus and explains to them what the Old Testament Scriptures had foretold concerning himself. At the table he then opens their eyes to recognize him. They report seeing Jesus alive to the eleven disciples, who confirm to them that Jesus has risen and had appeared to Simon Peter, Luke 24:13-35
4. Jesus appears to his disciples, Luke 24:36-49
a. Jesus appears to his disciples, who think they are seeing a ghost. After rebuking their lack of faith, he shows them that it is truly he himself who has risen from the dead, Luke 24:36-43
b. Jesus confirms that he had told them about his suffering, death, and resurrection, which things had been foretold in the Old Testament Scriptures. He opens their minds to understand what the Scriptures had foretold concerning himself, Luke 24:44-47
c. Jesus commissions them to be his witnesses, but they are to wait until they have been clothed with power from on high by the Holy Spirit, Luke 24:48,49
B. Jesus ascends into heaven and is worshipped by his disciples, who remain in the temple praising God, Luke 24:50-53