Our Lord’s sufferings for our Salvation
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“…He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement for our peace was upon Him, and by His stripes we are healed.” (Isaiah 53:5)… ……“But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him.” (Rom 5:8)
Our Lord endured and suffered a great deal for our sakes; and yet it had to happen for us to be saved and be able to enter into Paradise.
God gave up His only begotten Son to the world, and thus, Jesus lived His whole life on earth knowing that He was to be given as a sacrifice for His creation (from His birth, “He was despised, and we did not esteem Him” (Isaiah 53:3). And “He was a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief.”)… a sacrifice of love... “For God so loved the world that He gave His Only Begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.” (John 3:16,17) It is wonderful to contemplate that in spite of all our rebellion and sins, our Lord chose not to punish us, but rather to leave His throne and majesty in heaven and come down in His creatures’ likeness to carry our punishment for us. The greatest gift a loving person can offer is to sacrifice themselves, and the Lord said, "Greater love has no one than this, to lay down his life for his friends." (John 15:13). This was shown in depth by His sacrifice, the sacrifice of the True Lamb on the cross...
Sin is disobedience to God and violation against Him too. "The wages of sin is death" (Romans 6:23), and since the first sin, the sin of Adam is infinite, only an infinite death would be able to redeem him and to free him and his children from paying that price. Therefore, only the infinite God, incarnated and crucified on our behalf, and thus becoming the infinite sacrifice for our sins, would satisfy God's infinite justice and at the same time His infinite mercy and love for mankind.
Mankind therefore had a great need for salvation, since, until the Lord Christ brought them out after His crucifixion, all the righteous people who had satisfied God with their good works in the Old Testament had been waiting in hell. And since there could be no salvation except though the Blood of Christ alone, our Lord had to come down, and die on the Cross, thus paying the price for our sins, and purchasing us with His blood. But, in order for us to share in this salvation, we must also share in His death. This done by means of:
* Baptism- necessary for salvation, because it is sharing in the death of Christ, believing in death as a means of life, and admitting that the wages of sin is death. “ Most assuredly I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the Kingdom of God” (John 3:5). Saint Paul also makes a very important link between Baptism (which is the door that leads to Christianity) and Resurrection. "Therefore we were buried with Him through baptism into death, that just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we also should walk in newness of life. For if we have been united together in the likeness of His death, certainly we also shall be in the likeness of His resurrection, knowing this, that our old man was crucified with Him, that the body of sin might be done away with, that we should no longer be slaves of sin." (Romans 6:4-6).
* Faith- the importance of this is confirmed when the Lord Christ says, "He that believeth on him is not condemned, but he that believeth not is condemned already because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God." (John 3:18) and “…whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.” (John 3:16). Thus, we can gain salvation if we believe, and without faith there is no salvation, "For if you believe not that I am He, you shall die in your sins." (John 8:24) - These words mean that Christ's blood exists and is capable of saving, but would not save us against our will. Faith is a necessary but not sufficient condition for salvation. It qualifies us to be baptised and for the sacraments.
* Faith and Good works together- Saint Paul teaches us that faith alone is not sufficient for our salvation, "And though I have all faith so that I could move mountains and have no charity, I am nothing." (I Corinthians 13:2) and he also says that good works that are done without the faith in Christ's salvation, like those done by the Jews according to Moses' Law only, is not a justification for us, "Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law." (Romans 3:28) This faith required for our salvation must be a living one, “…faith without works is dead” (James 2:20). Therefore the two of them, faith and good works, are required for our salvation through the grace given to us by God as His children.
* Eucharist- the importance of this sacrament is emphasised in the words of the Lord, “…unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink His blood, you have no life in you. Whoever eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life…. abides in Me, and I in him…” (John 6:53 - 58). Also, in our Divine Mass, “…given for us: salvation, and remission of sins, and eternal life for whoever partakes of it”. The Holy offering of Eucharist is a continuation of the sacrifice of Christ. Therefore, we cannot be saved of our sins without it.
* And through all the blessed Sacraments of the Church, we can attain salvation, the purpose of which, is to:
* Join us with Himself - redemption in its essence is the unity with God, the Source of life, and the price for this unity was the offering of His blood to save us.
* Undergo death - He turned death into life through the cross, and having saved man from destruction, He was raised to Heaven.
* Conquer our enemy, Satan - Our Lord faced many temptations and trials from Satan, “…if thou be the Son of God…” (Matt 4:3), but each time He defeated and overthrew him.
Jesus said, “I am the way, the truth, and the life: no one comes to the Father except through Me.” (John 14:6), and He showed us this, that in order to forgive our sins, He had to carry them Himself, on our behalf, and therefore, Christ, through redemption, was a sacrifice of love on the Cross; a sacrifice which granted us the gift of His grace and the remission of our sins.
The path our Lord took throughout His life on earth, on His way to be crucified for our salvation:
(Luke 22: 39-44) “Coming out, He went to the Mount of Olives, as He was accustomed, and His disciples also followed Him. When He came to the place, He said to them, "Pray that you may not enter into temptation." And He was withdrawn from them about a stone's throw, and He knelt down and prayed, saying, "Father, if it is Your will, take this cup away from Me; nevertheless not My will, but Yours, be done." Then an angel appeared to Him from heaven, strengthening Him. And being in agony, He prayed more earnestly. Then His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground”
At this time, our Lord had a very clear view, and was able to foresee all the shame and suffering of His crucifixion. He foresaw the speedy coming of the traitor-disciple, the seizure by the officers, the mock-trials before the Sadducees, and Pilate, and Herod, the scourging and buffeting, the crown of thorns, the shame, the spitting…
He who answered not a word when in the midst of the conflict, could not restrain Himself from strong crying and tears in the prospect of it. If one puts before them the thoughts of the terrible incidents of His death; the hounding through the streets of Jerusalem under the weight of the splinter-filled Cross, the nailing to the cross, deeply through His skin, the fever, the thirst, and, above all, the forsaking of His God, one cannot marvel that He began to be very heavy.
(Matthew 27:11-14) “Now Jesus stood before the governor. And the governor asked Him, saying, "Are You the King of the Jews?" So Jesus said to him, "It is as you say." And while He was being accused by the chief priests and elders, He answered nothing. Then Pilate said to Him, "Do You not hear how many things they testify against You?" But He answered him not one word, so that the governor marveled greatly.”
(Luke 22: 63-65) “Now the men who held Jesus mocked Him and beat Him. And having blindfolded Him, they struck Him on the face and asked Him, saying, "Prophesy! Who is the one who struck You?" And many other things they blasphemously spoke against Him.”
(Matthew 27:15-26) “Now at the feast the governor was accustomed to releasing to the multitude one prisoner whom they wished. And at that time they had a notorious prisoner called Barabbas. Therefore, when they had gathered together, Pilate said to them, "Whom do you want me to release to you? Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ?" For he knew that they had handed Him over because of envy. While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, "Have nothing to do with that just Man, for I have suffered many things today in a dream because of Him." But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitudes that they should ask for Barabbas and destroy Jesus. The governor answered and said to them, "Which of the two do you want me to release to you?" They said, "Barabbas!" Pilate said to them, "What then shall I do with Jesus who is called Christ?" They all said to him, "Let Him be crucified!" Then the governor said, "Why, what evil has He done?" But they cried out all the more, saying, "Let Him be crucified!" When Pilate saw that he could not prevail at all, but rather [that] a tumult was rising, he took water and washed [his] hands before the multitude, saying, "I am innocent of the blood of this just Person. You see to it." And all the people answered and said, "His blood be on us and on our children." Then he released Barabbas to them; and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered Him to be crucified.”
(John 19: 5-18) “Then Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. And Pilate said to them, "Behold the Man!" Therefore, when the chief priests and officers saw Him, they cried out, saying, "Crucify Him, crucify Him!" Pilate said to them, "You take Him and crucify Him, for I find no fault in Him." The Jews answered him, "We have a law, and according to our law He ought to die, because He made Himself the Son of God." Therefore, when Pilate heard that saying, he was the more afraid, and went again into the Praetorium, and said to Jesus, "Where are You from?" But Jesus gave him no answer. Then Pilate said to Him, "Are You not speaking to me? Do You not know that I have power to crucify You, and power to release You?" Jesus answered, "You could have no power at all against Me unless it had been given you from above. Therefore the one who delivered Me to you has the greater sin." From then on Pilate sought to release Him, but the Jews cried out, saying, "If you let this Man go, you are not Caesar's friend. Whoever makes himself a king speaks against Caesar." When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus out and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called The Pavement, but in Hebrew, Gabbatha. Now it was the Preparation Day of the Passover, and about the sixth hour. And he said to the Jews, "Behold your King!" But they cried out, "Away with Him, away with Him! Crucify Him!" Pilate said to them, "Shall I crucify your King?" The chief priests answered, "We have no king but Caesar!" Then he delivered Him to them to be crucified. So they took Jesus and led Him away. And He, bearing His cross, went out to a place called the Place of a Skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha, where they crucified Him, and two others with Him, one on either side, and Jesus in the center.”
In the Old Testament, two birds were taken in the rite of the cleansing of a leper. One bird was killed, and its blood poured into a basin; the other bird was dipped in this blood, and then, with its wings all crimson, it was set free to fly into the open field. The bird slain well pictures the Saviour, and every soul that has been dipped in His blood, flies upward towards heaven singing sweetly in joyous liberty, owing life and liberty entirely to Him who was slain. It comes entirely to this, Barabbas must die or Christ must die; you the sinner must perish, or Christ Emmanuel, the Immaculate, must die. He dies that we may be delivered . . . and though we have been robbers, traitors, and murderers yet we can rejoice that Christ has delivered us from the curse of the law, having been made a curse for us . . . Also in the Old Testament, there were the 2 rituals of the Burnt Sacrifice and the Sin Sacrifice. The Burnt Sacrifice; its’ purpose was for a voluntary sacrifice for the atonement. The burnt offering also symbolizes the sacrificial death of our Lord Jesus Christ on our behalf; in that He took our sins and the sentence of death that was on us, and died for us to save us. This sacrifice pleased to God the Father as He used to be pleased by the sweet savors of the burnt offerings. The Sin Sacrifice; its’ purpose was for the atonement and forgiveness of a sin against the commandments of God out of ignorance. Taking all the parts of the animal and burning them outside the camp in this ritual symbolizes the crucifixion of Christ outside Jerusalem. This, to take the sin away from the site of God and from His people. The hide of the animal symbolizes the earthly pride of the people, its flesh symbolizes the sin in general, its head symbolizes the unclean thoughts and wickedness, its legs symbolize the actions, its inwards symbolize all the hidden intentions, and the dung symbolizes all the visible evil. They all together symbolize the weakness of the human sinner and his wickedness in all his deeds, and his need to be cleaned from each and every one of these.
Christ, as He stood covered with His people’s sins had more sin laid upon Him than that which rested upon Barabbas. In Him was no sin; He was altogether incapable of becoming a sinner: Holy, Harmless, and Undefiled is Christ Jesus, but He took the whole load of His people’s guilt upon Himself by imputation, and as God the Father looked upon Him, He saw more guilt lying upon the Saviour, than even upon this atrocious sinner, Barabbas. Barabbas went free, innocent- in comparison with the tremendous weight which rests upon the Saviour.
One then questions the multitudes rationalization in their devious and unified decision against Him. Did He not feed them when they hungered? Did He not multiply the loaves and fish for them? Did He not heal their lepers with His touch? And cast out devils from their sons and daughters? Raise up their paralytics? Give sight to their blind, and open the ears of their deaf? For which of these good works did they conspire against Him to kill Him? For which of these things do they clamor that He may be crucified? For which of His good works, for which of His generous words, for which of His holy deeds will they fasten His hands to the wood, and His feet to the tree? With unreasonable and unjustifiable hatred, with senseless cruelty, their only answer to the question of Pilate “Why, what evil has He done?” was “Let Him be crucified! Let Him be crucified!” Among that assembled multitude, there were doubtless some there, who owed to Him priceless boons, and yet, though all of them His debtors, they clamored against Him as though He were the worst trouble of their lives, a pest and a pestilence to the place where He dwelt.
(Matthew 27:27-51) “Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the Praetorium and gathered the whole garrison around Him. And they stripped Him and put a scarlet robe on Him. When they had twisted a crown of thorns, they put it on His head, and a reed in His right hand. And they bowed the knee before Him and mocked Him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" Then they spat on Him, and took the reed and struck Him on the head. And when they had mocked Him, they took the robe off Him, put His own clothes on Him, and led Him away to be crucified. Now as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name. Him they compelled to bear His cross. And when they had come to a place called Golgotha, that is to say, Place of a Skull, they gave Him sour wine mingled with gall to drink. But when He had tasted it, He would not drink. Then they crucified Him, and divided His garments, casting lots, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet: "They divided My garments among them, And for My clothing they cast lots." Sitting down, they kept watch over Him there. And they put up over His head the accusation written against Him: THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS. Then two robbers were crucified with Him, one on the right and another on the left. And those who passed by blasphemed Him, wagging their heads and saying, "You who destroy the temple and build it in three days, save Yourself! If You are the Son of God, come down from the cross." Likewise the chief priests also, mocking with the scribes and elders, said, "He saved others; Himself He cannot save. If He is the King of Israel, let Him now come down from the cross, and we will believe Him. "He trusted in God; let Him deliver Him now if He will have Him; for He said, `I am the Son of God.' " Even the robbers who were crucified with Him reviled Him with the same thing. Now from the sixth hour until the ninth hour there was darkness over all the land. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" that is, "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?" Some of those who stood there, when they heard [that], said, "This Man is calling for Elijah!" Immediately one of them ran and took a sponge, filled it with sour wine and put it on a reed, and offered it to Him to drink. The rest said, "Let Him alone; let us see if Elijah will come to save Him." And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice, and yielded up His spirit. Then, behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom; and the earth quaked, and the rocks were split, and the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised; and coming out of the graves after His resurrection, they went into the holy city and appeared to many. So when the centurion and those with him, who were guarding Jesus, saw the earthquake and the things that had happened, they feared greatly, saying, "Truly this was the Son of God!" And many women who followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering to Him, were there looking on from afar, among whom were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee's sons. Now when evening had come, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who himself had also become a disciple of Jesus. This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be given to him. When Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, “
(John 19:1-4) “So then Pilate took Jesus and scourged Him. And the soldiers twisted a crown of thorns and put it on His head, and they put on Him a purple robe. Then they said, "Hail, King of the Jews!" And they struck Him with their hands. Pilate then went out again, and said to them, "Behold, I am bringing Him out to you, that you may know that I find no fault in Him." “
(Mark 15: 29-38) “And those who passed by blasphemed Him, wagging their heads and saying, "Aha! You who destroy the temple and build it in three days, save Yourself, and come down from the cross!" Likewise the chief priests also, mocking among themselves with the scribes, said, "He saved others; Himself He cannot save. "Let the Christ, the King of Israel, descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe." Even those who were crucified with Him reviled Him. Now when the sixth hour had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. And at the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" which is translated, "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?" Some of those who stood by, when they heard that, said, "Look, He is calling for Elijah!" Then someone ran and filled a sponge full of sour wine, put it on a reed, and offered it to Him to drink, saying, "Let Him alone; let us see if Elijah will come to take Him down." And Jesus cried out with a loud voice, and breathed His last. Then the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom. “
(Luke 23: 44-45) “Now it was about the sixth hour, and there was darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. Then the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was torn in two.”
Earth had never beheld a scene in which so much unrestrained derision and expressive contempt were poured upon one man so unanimously and for such long a time. It must have been hideous to the last degree to have seen so many grinning faces and mocking eyes, and to have heard so many cruel words and scornful shouts. The spectacle was too detestable to be long endured of heaven. Suddenly the sun, shocked at the scene, veiled its face . .
Meanwhile the earth trembled, the rocks were rent, and the temple had its holy veil rent as though by strong invisible hands.
(Matthew 27:37-38) “And they put up over His head the accusation written against Him: THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS. Then two robbers were crucified with Him, one on the right and another on the left. “
(Mark 15: 25-28) “Now it was the third hour, and they crucified Him. And the inscription of His accusation was written above: THE KING OF THE JEWS. With Him they also crucified two robbers, one on His right and the other on His left. So the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "And He was numbered with the transgressors." “
(John 19: 17-19) “And He, bearing His cross, went out to a place called the Place of a Skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha, where they crucified Him, and two others with Him, one on either side, and Jesus in the centre. Now Pilate wrote a title and put it on the cross. And the writing was: JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS.”
Between two thieves, two criminals… the Son of God made flesh, nailed by His hands and feet, was dying in an anguish which words cannot portray. . . He who was worshipped by angels, was now dying for the sons of men; the death of death’s destroyer. . .
That thorn-covered head which was once crowned with all the royalties of heaven and earth; He who died there was no common man - the King of kings and Lord of lords is He who hangs on the Cross. One sees and is able to recognize the greatness of our sins, which required so vast a sacrifice. They must be infinite sins to require an infinite Person to lay down His life for their removal. They have stained His cheeks with a criminal’s whip; they have put Him to the death which was only awarded to the meanest Roman slave; they have hung Him up between heaven and earth, as though He were fit for neither! Though, one man amongst these people was able to see the True Light beside him, and taking the chance, repented and said to Him, “Lord, remember me when You come into Your kingdom” (Luke 23:42). And yet, despite the unmercifulness of the rest of the multitudes and their crudeness and hatred in crucifying Him, and despite the unbearable pain and suffering He must have been experiencing, these did not stop our Lord from mercifully thinking of those who had crucified Him, and asking for their forgiveness; “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they do”, (Luke 23:24).
(Mark 15:34) “And at the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" which is translated, "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?"”
Contemplating on the Lord’s dear face, one imagines the lines of anguish which must have appeared indicate the deeper inward sorrow which far transcends mere bodily pain and as God, His Father seemed to have forsaken Him, because for that mere moment, carrying all the vile, filthy sins of the world, His Father turned His face from Him; the pain He must have felt for that moment, as even His own Father had forsaken Him. But it makes one think, how filthy must our sins be, that when they are laid upon our Lord for a while, His Father turned His head away and made His Son cry out, “Lama Sabachthani?!”
(Luke 23:46) “And when Jesus had cried out with a loud voice, He said, "Father, `into Your hands I commit My spirit.' " Having said this, He breathed His last.”
(John 19:30) “So when Jesus had received the sour wine, He said, "It is finished!" And bowing His head, He gave up His spirit.”
Placing innocence, and merit, and dignity, and Godhead Himself, in the scale, and then conceiving what must be the inestimable value of the blood which Jesus Christ poured forth. Angels must have seen that matchless bloodshedding, and watched with wonder and amazement, and even God Himself saw what never before was seen in creation or in providence; He saw Himself on the Cross more gloriously displayed than in the whole universe beside.
(Isaiah 53:1-12) “Who has believed our report? And to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed? For He shall grow up before Him as a tender plant, And as a root out of dry ground. He has no form or comeliness; And when we see Him, There is no beauty that we should desire Him. He is despised and rejected by men, A Man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. And we hid, as it were, our faces from Him; He was despised, and we did not esteem Him. Surely He has borne our grieves and carried our sorrows; Yet we esteemed Him stricken, Smitten by God, and afflicted. But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; The chastisement for our peace was upon Him, And by His stripes we are healed. we like sheep have gone astray; We have turned, every one, to his own way; And the Lord has laid on Him the iniquity of us all. He was oppressed and He was afflicted, Yet He opened not His mouth; He was led as a lamb to the slaughter, And as a sheep before its shearers is silent, So He opened not His mouth. He was taken from prison and from judgment, And who will declare His generation? For He was cut off from the land of the living; For the transgressions of My people He was stricken. And they made His grave with the wicked-- But with the rich at His death, Because He had done no violence, Nor was [any] deceit in His mouth. Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise Him; He has put Him to grief. When You make His soul an offering for sin, He shall see His seed, He shall prolong His days, And the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in His hand. He shall see the labor of His soul, [and] be satisfied. By His knowledge My righteous Servant shall justify many, For He shall bear their iniquities. Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, Because He poured out His soul unto death, And He was numbered with the transgressors, And He bore the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors.”
"... and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin." (I John 1:7) Christ's passions during the Holy
Passion week were merely a natural result of His love for us, His Creation. Love here is the origin, while pain is the outer appearance... He suffered and endured all things for our sake; for the remission of our sins, and so that we may be able to enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. "And almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission" (Hebrews 9:22)
We had our Lord die for us on the cross and He willingly offered up His precious blood to wash away all of our sins. What can our excuse now possibly be to refuse life and die in our sins? “Therefore you are inexcusable O man, . . . “ (Rom. 2:1)
“…Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world." (John 1:29)
The resurrection of the Lord is a preview of our own resurrection from death, when Christ comes again: "And God both raised up the Lord and will also raise us up by His power." (1 Corinthians 6:14). Without the promise of the resurrection, Christianity would be hollow.
Christ’s Resurrection symbolises His power over sin: "But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you." (Romans 8:11). It symbolises power and also hope in that power over death: "that I may know Him and the power of His resurrection, if, by any means, I may attain to the resurrection from the dead.” (Philippians 3:10-11).
As Christians we should remember that, through the death and resurrection of Christ the Lord, "sin shall not have dominion over us". We are free and we have eternal life. Thus, with Saint Paul we remind each other "not to present our members as instruments of unrighteousness to sin, but to present ourselves to God as being alive from the dead, and [our] members as instruments of righteousness to God." (Romans 6:13), so that we may join the multitudes in the song of victory:
"O Death, where is your sting? O Hades, where is your victory? Thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ." (1Corinthians 15:55,57)
Love: The summit of Virtues - H.H Pope Shenouda III
The Life of Grace - Ignatius Press, San Francisco (1985)
Being with God - H.H Pope Shenouda III
Words of Spiritual Benefit (1-50 vol.) - H.H Pope Shenouda III
‘Man & Redemption’ - Fr. Tadros Y. Malaty
‘Salvation: In the Orthodox Concept’ - H.H. Pope Shenouda III
Excerpts from the Writings of H. H. Pope Shenouda III - Part 1.
Translated by: Mrs. Basilius, Australia. Revised by: Mrs. Wedad Abbas.
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